New developments in cross-sectional imaging, including contrast-enhanced ultrasound, dual-energy computed tomography, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, together with novel application of existing and novel radiotracers, have changed the landscape of renal mass characterization (ie, virtual biopsy) as well as the detection of metastatic disease, prognostication, and response assessment in patients with advanced kidney cancer. A host of imaging response criteria have been developed to characterize the response to targeted and immune therapies and correlate with patient outcomes, each with strengths and limitations. Recent efforts to advance the field are aimed at increasing objectivity with quantitative techniques and the use of banks of imaging data to match the vast genomic data that are becoming available. The emerging field of radiogenomics has the potential to transform further the role of imaging in kidney cancer management through eventual noninvasive characterization of the tumor histology and genetic microenvironment in single renal masses and/or metastatic disease. We review of the effect of currently available imaging techniques in the management of patients with kidney cancer, including localized, locally advanced, and metastatic disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research