Imaging, tracking and computational analyses of virus entry and egress with the cytoskeleton

I. Hsuan Wang, Christoph J. Burckhardt, Artur Yakimovich, Urs F. Greber

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Viruses have a dual nature: particles are “passive substances” lacking chemical energy transformation, whereas infected cells are “active substances” turning-over energy. How passive viral substances convert to active substances, comprising viral replication and assembly compartments has been of intense interest to virologists, cell and molecular biologists and immunologists. Infection starts with virus entry into a susceptible cell and delivers the viral genome to the replication site. This is a multi-step process, and involves the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. Likewise, the egress of progeny virus particles from the replication site to the extracellular space is enhanced by the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. This overcomes the limitation of thermal diffusion, and transports virions and virion components, often in association with cellular organelles. This review explores how the analysis of viral trajectories informs about mechanisms of infection. We tdiscuss the methodology enabling researchers to visualize single virions in cells by fluorescence imaging and tracking. Virus visualization and tracking are increasingly enhanced by computational analyses of virus trajectories as well as in silico modeling. Combined approaches reveal previously unrecognized features of virus-infected cells. Using select examples of complementary methodology, we highlight the role of actin filaments and microtubules, and their associated motors in virus infections. In-depth studies of single virion dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolutions thereby provide deep insight into virus infection processes, and are a basis for uncovering underlying mechanisms of how cells function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number166
JournalViruses
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2018

Fingerprint

Virus Release
Virus Internalization
Cytoskeleton
Virion
Viruses
Virus Diseases
Thermal Diffusion
Virus Assembly
Viral Genome
Optical Imaging
Extracellular Space
Virus Replication
Infection
Actin Cytoskeleton
Microtubules
Organelles
Computer Simulation
Proteins
Research Personnel

Keywords

  • Actin
  • Adeno-associated virus AAV
  • Adenovirus
  • Baculovirus
  • Cell biology
  • Click chemistry
  • Computing
  • Cytoskeleton
  • DNA virus
  • Dynein
  • Electron microscopy
  • Endocytosis
  • Enveloped virus
  • Fluorescence microscopy
  • Fluorescent virions
  • Gene expression
  • Gene therapy
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Herpesvirus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus HIV
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy
  • Infection
  • Influenza virus
  • Innate immunity
  • Internalization
  • Intracellular transport
  • Kinesin
  • Machine learning
  • Membrane traffic
  • Microscopy
  • Microtubule
  • Modeling
  • Myosin
  • Nonenveloped virus
  • Nuclear pore complex
  • Parvovirus
  • Quantitative microscopy
  • Receptor
  • RNA virus
  • Simian virus 40
  • Simulation
  • Single particle tracking
  • Tracking
  • Trafficking
  • Trajectory segmentation
  • Virion uncoating
  • Virus entry
  • Virus infection mechanisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Imaging, tracking and computational analyses of virus entry and egress with the cytoskeleton. / Wang, I. Hsuan; Burckhardt, Christoph J.; Yakimovich, Artur; Greber, Urs F.

In: Viruses, Vol. 10, No. 4, 166, 04.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Wang, I. Hsuan ; Burckhardt, Christoph J. ; Yakimovich, Artur ; Greber, Urs F. / Imaging, tracking and computational analyses of virus entry and egress with the cytoskeleton. In: Viruses. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 4.
@article{303b584db78e471bb94f4915534e5f9b,
title = "Imaging, tracking and computational analyses of virus entry and egress with the cytoskeleton",
abstract = "Viruses have a dual nature: particles are “passive substances” lacking chemical energy transformation, whereas infected cells are “active substances” turning-over energy. How passive viral substances convert to active substances, comprising viral replication and assembly compartments has been of intense interest to virologists, cell and molecular biologists and immunologists. Infection starts with virus entry into a susceptible cell and delivers the viral genome to the replication site. This is a multi-step process, and involves the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. Likewise, the egress of progeny virus particles from the replication site to the extracellular space is enhanced by the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. This overcomes the limitation of thermal diffusion, and transports virions and virion components, often in association with cellular organelles. This review explores how the analysis of viral trajectories informs about mechanisms of infection. We tdiscuss the methodology enabling researchers to visualize single virions in cells by fluorescence imaging and tracking. Virus visualization and tracking are increasingly enhanced by computational analyses of virus trajectories as well as in silico modeling. Combined approaches reveal previously unrecognized features of virus-infected cells. Using select examples of complementary methodology, we highlight the role of actin filaments and microtubules, and their associated motors in virus infections. In-depth studies of single virion dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolutions thereby provide deep insight into virus infection processes, and are a basis for uncovering underlying mechanisms of how cells function.",
keywords = "Actin, Adeno-associated virus AAV, Adenovirus, Baculovirus, Cell biology, Click chemistry, Computing, Cytoskeleton, DNA virus, Dynein, Electron microscopy, Endocytosis, Enveloped virus, Fluorescence microscopy, Fluorescent virions, Gene expression, Gene therapy, Hepatitis B virus, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesvirus, Human immunodeficiency virus HIV, Immunofluorescence microscopy, Infection, Influenza virus, Innate immunity, Internalization, Intracellular transport, Kinesin, Machine learning, Membrane traffic, Microscopy, Microtubule, Modeling, Myosin, Nonenveloped virus, Nuclear pore complex, Parvovirus, Quantitative microscopy, Receptor, RNA virus, Simian virus 40, Simulation, Single particle tracking, Tracking, Trafficking, Trajectory segmentation, Virion uncoating, Virus entry, Virus infection mechanisms",
author = "Wang, {I. Hsuan} and Burckhardt, {Christoph J.} and Artur Yakimovich and Greber, {Urs F.}",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
doi = "10.3390/v10040166",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "10",
journal = "Viruses",
issn = "1999-4915",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Imaging, tracking and computational analyses of virus entry and egress with the cytoskeleton

AU - Wang, I. Hsuan

AU - Burckhardt, Christoph J.

AU - Yakimovich, Artur

AU - Greber, Urs F.

PY - 2018/4

Y1 - 2018/4

N2 - Viruses have a dual nature: particles are “passive substances” lacking chemical energy transformation, whereas infected cells are “active substances” turning-over energy. How passive viral substances convert to active substances, comprising viral replication and assembly compartments has been of intense interest to virologists, cell and molecular biologists and immunologists. Infection starts with virus entry into a susceptible cell and delivers the viral genome to the replication site. This is a multi-step process, and involves the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. Likewise, the egress of progeny virus particles from the replication site to the extracellular space is enhanced by the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. This overcomes the limitation of thermal diffusion, and transports virions and virion components, often in association with cellular organelles. This review explores how the analysis of viral trajectories informs about mechanisms of infection. We tdiscuss the methodology enabling researchers to visualize single virions in cells by fluorescence imaging and tracking. Virus visualization and tracking are increasingly enhanced by computational analyses of virus trajectories as well as in silico modeling. Combined approaches reveal previously unrecognized features of virus-infected cells. Using select examples of complementary methodology, we highlight the role of actin filaments and microtubules, and their associated motors in virus infections. In-depth studies of single virion dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolutions thereby provide deep insight into virus infection processes, and are a basis for uncovering underlying mechanisms of how cells function.

AB - Viruses have a dual nature: particles are “passive substances” lacking chemical energy transformation, whereas infected cells are “active substances” turning-over energy. How passive viral substances convert to active substances, comprising viral replication and assembly compartments has been of intense interest to virologists, cell and molecular biologists and immunologists. Infection starts with virus entry into a susceptible cell and delivers the viral genome to the replication site. This is a multi-step process, and involves the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. Likewise, the egress of progeny virus particles from the replication site to the extracellular space is enhanced by the cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins. This overcomes the limitation of thermal diffusion, and transports virions and virion components, often in association with cellular organelles. This review explores how the analysis of viral trajectories informs about mechanisms of infection. We tdiscuss the methodology enabling researchers to visualize single virions in cells by fluorescence imaging and tracking. Virus visualization and tracking are increasingly enhanced by computational analyses of virus trajectories as well as in silico modeling. Combined approaches reveal previously unrecognized features of virus-infected cells. Using select examples of complementary methodology, we highlight the role of actin filaments and microtubules, and their associated motors in virus infections. In-depth studies of single virion dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolutions thereby provide deep insight into virus infection processes, and are a basis for uncovering underlying mechanisms of how cells function.

KW - Actin

KW - Adeno-associated virus AAV

KW - Adenovirus

KW - Baculovirus

KW - Cell biology

KW - Click chemistry

KW - Computing

KW - Cytoskeleton

KW - DNA virus

KW - Dynein

KW - Electron microscopy

KW - Endocytosis

KW - Enveloped virus

KW - Fluorescence microscopy

KW - Fluorescent virions

KW - Gene expression

KW - Gene therapy

KW - Hepatitis B virus

KW - Herpes simplex virus

KW - Herpesvirus

KW - Human immunodeficiency virus HIV

KW - Immunofluorescence microscopy

KW - Infection

KW - Influenza virus

KW - Innate immunity

KW - Internalization

KW - Intracellular transport

KW - Kinesin

KW - Machine learning

KW - Membrane traffic

KW - Microscopy

KW - Microtubule

KW - Modeling

KW - Myosin

KW - Nonenveloped virus

KW - Nuclear pore complex

KW - Parvovirus

KW - Quantitative microscopy

KW - Receptor

KW - RNA virus

KW - Simian virus 40

KW - Simulation

KW - Single particle tracking

KW - Tracking

KW - Trafficking

KW - Trajectory segmentation

KW - Virion uncoating

KW - Virus entry

KW - Virus infection mechanisms

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85045111689&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85045111689&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/v10040166

DO - 10.3390/v10040166

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29614729

AN - SCOPUS:85045111689

VL - 10

JO - Viruses

JF - Viruses

SN - 1999-4915

IS - 4

M1 - 166

ER -