Background: Imiquimod 5% cream may provide an effective nonsurgical treatment for superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) based on results of previous studies. Objective: The objective of this phase II dose-response study was to explore various dosing regimens using imiquimod 5% cream for sBCC to find the most effective frequency of dosing with tolerable side effects. Methods: Patients (n = 128) were dosed twice daily, once daily, 5 times a week, or 3 times a week in this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. At 6 weeks after treatment, the entire tumor area was clinically evaluated, excised, and examined exhaustively for histologic evidence of residual sBCC. Results: Complete response rates were 100% (10/10), 87.1% (27/31), 80.8% (21/26), and 51.7% (15/29) for patients in the twice daily, once daily, 5 times a week, and 3 times a week imiquimod groups, respectively, and 18.8% (6/32) in the vehicle group. Conclusion: Imiquimod 5% cream was effective in the treatment of sBCC. Daily or 5 times a week dosing for 12 weeks demonstrated high efficacy results with acceptable safety profiles.
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