Immunological aspects of approved MS therapeutics

Paulus S. Rommer, Ron Milo, May H. Han, Sammita Satyanarayan, Johann Sellner, Larissa Hauer, Zsolt Illes, Clemens Warnke, Sarah Laurent, Martin S. Weber, Yinan Zhang, Olaf Stuve

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological immune-mediated disease leading to disability in young adults. The outcome of the disease is unpredictable, and over time, neurological disabilities accumulate. Interferon beta-1b was the first drug to be approved in the 1990s for relapsing-remitting MS to modulate the course of the disease. Over the past two decades, the treatment landscape has changed tremendously. Currently, more than a dozen drugs representing 1 substances with different mechanisms of action have been approved (interferon beta preparations, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, siponimod, mitoxantrone, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, cladribine, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, and natalizumab). Ocrelizumab was the first medication to be approved for primary progressive MS. The objective of this review is to present the modes of action of these drugs and their effects on the immunopathogenesis of MS. Each agent's clinical development and potential side effects are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1564
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Issue numberJULY
StatePublished - 2019


  • Immunomodulation
  • Immunosuppression
  • Immunotherapeutics
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Multiple sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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