Immunosensors for Biomarker Detection in Autoimmune Diseases

Xuezhu Zhang, Amarayca Zambrano, Zuan Tao Lin, Yikun Xing, Justin Rippy, Tianfu Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system generates proinflammatory molecules and autoantibodies that mistakenly attack their own body. Traditional diagnosis of autoimmune disease is primarily based on physician assessment combined with core laboratory tests. However, these tests are not sensitive enough to detect early molecular events, and quite often, it is too late to control these autoimmune diseases and reverse tissue damage when conventional tests show positivity for disease. It is fortunate that during the past decade, research in nanotechnology has provided enormous opportunities for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors in detecting early biomarkers with high sensitivity. Biosensors consist of a biorecognition element and a transducer which are able to facilitate an accurate detection of proinflammatory molecules, autoantibodies and other disease-causing molecules. Apparently, novel biosensors could be superior to traditional metrics in assessing the drug efficacy in clinical trials, especially when specific biomarkers are indicative of the pathogenesis of disease. Furthermore, the portability of a biosensor enables the development of point-of-care devices. In this review, various types of biomolecule sensing systems, including electrochemical, optical and mechanical sensors, and their applications and future potentials in autoimmune disease treatment were discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalArchivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Sep 3 2016

Keywords

  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Biomarker
  • Biosensor
  • Nanotechnology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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