Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on clinical outcomes and costs associated with percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL). Methods: We reviewed charts of 200 consecutive patients who underwent PCNL between September 2005 and May 2007. We recorded patient and stone characteristics and perioperative outcomes. BMI was available for 150 patients (75%), who comprised our study group. We obtained direct and subcomponent costs (room and board, laboratory, pharmacy, radiology, operating room, surgical supplies, anesthesia, and recovery room). We divided patients into four BMI categories: normal weight (BMI < 25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), obese (30 ≤ BMI < 40), and morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 40). We compared groups with regard to baseline characteristics, intraoperative parameters, stone-free and complication rates, and hospital length of stay. Results: Mean stone size and proportion of patients with staghorn, multiple, and bilateral calculi were similar among groups. The normal weight cohort had proportionately fewer recurrent stone formers and patients with a history of stone surgery, compared with the other groups (P = .005 and P = .03, respectively). We found no significant differences among groups with regard to stone-free and complication rates, operative time, length of stay, or need for multiple accesses. Median direct cost was marginally, but not significantly, higher in normal weight ($8124) compared with overweight ($6746), obese ($6740), and morbidly obese ($6719) patients (P = .75). Conclusions: Body mass index had no impact on efficacy or complication rates of PCNL. Despite greater perceived difficulty in performing these procedures in overweight and obese patients, it was not more costly.
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