The presence of congestive heart failure (CHF) has been associated with treatment disparities and worse outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but the incidence and effect of CHF in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACSs) has not been well characterized. We evaluated 45,744 patients with NSTE ACS (positive cardiac markers and/or ischemic ST-segment changes) who were treated at 424 hospitals in the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative between March 2000 and March 2003. Treatment patterns and in-hospital outcomes in patients with signs of CHF on presentation and those who developed in-hospital CHF were compared with those in patients without CHF. In total, 10,398 patients (22.7%) had signs of CHF on presentation, and 1,664 patients (3.6%) later developed in-hospital CHF. Compared with patients without CHF, early (<24 hours from presentation) medications and invasive cardiac procedures were used less often in patients with signs of CHF on presentation. Likewise, patients with in-hospital CHF were less likely than those without CHF to receive acute antiplatelet agents and undergo cardiac catheterization but more likely to receive acute β blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and heparin and to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Adjusted mortality was higher in patients with signs of CHF on presentation (odds ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 2.31 to 3.01) and those with in-hospital CHF (odds ratio 4.93, 95% confidence interval 4.05 to 5.99) than in patients without CHF. In conclusion, CHF occurs frequently in patients with NSTE ACS but is associated with less aggressive treatment and a higher risk of mortality. Further study is needed to determine the causes of these treatment differences and the optimal therapeutic approach for patients with NSTE ACS and concomitant CHF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine