The vasculature of tumours is highly abnormal and dysfunctional. Consequently, immune effector cells have an impaired ability to penetrate solid tumours and often exhibit compromised functions. Normalization of the tumour vasculature can enhance tissue perfusion and improve immune effector cell infiltration, leading to immunotherapy potentiation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the stimulation of immune cell functions can also help to normalize tumour vessels. In this Opinion article, we propose that the reciprocal regulation between tumour vascular normalization and immune reprogramming forms a reinforcing loop that reconditions the tumour immune microenvironment to induce durable antitumour immunity. A deeper understanding of these pathways could pave the way for identifying new biomarkers and developing more effective combination treatment strategies for patients with cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy