Improving the therapeutic index of topically applied ocular drugs

T. J. Zimmerman, K. S. Kooner, A. S. Kandarakis, L. P. Ziegler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nasolacrimal occlusion (NLO) and eyelid closure are simple techniques that not only increase the ocular bioavailability of topically applied ocular drugs but also reduce the probability of adverse systemic effects. Each serves to improve the therapeutic index. Subsequent to the application of 0.5% timolol maleate, the effects of NLO and eyelid closure were compared with the effects of no procedures. In this experiment, systemic drug absorption in normal volunteers was reduced more than 60%. Measurements were made by radioimmunoassay for timolol in blood plasma. In addition, the diminution of fluorescein in the anterior chamber was observed for three hours cul-de-sac. Results indicate a lower fluorescein concentration and a shorter duration of fluorescence in the absence of either experimental technique. Both NLO and eyelid closure seem to be safe, simple, and effective procedures that could minimize dosage requirements, as well as side effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-553
Number of pages3
JournalArchives of Ophthalmology
Volume102
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1984

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Eyelids
Timolol
Fluorescein
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Anterior Chamber
Biological Availability
Radioimmunoassay
Healthy Volunteers
Therapeutics
Fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Zimmerman, T. J., Kooner, K. S., Kandarakis, A. S., & Ziegler, L. P. (1984). Improving the therapeutic index of topically applied ocular drugs. Archives of Ophthalmology, 102(4), 551-553.

Improving the therapeutic index of topically applied ocular drugs. / Zimmerman, T. J.; Kooner, K. S.; Kandarakis, A. S.; Ziegler, L. P.

In: Archives of Ophthalmology, Vol. 102, No. 4, 1984, p. 551-553.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zimmerman, TJ, Kooner, KS, Kandarakis, AS & Ziegler, LP 1984, 'Improving the therapeutic index of topically applied ocular drugs', Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 551-553.
Zimmerman, T. J. ; Kooner, K. S. ; Kandarakis, A. S. ; Ziegler, L. P. / Improving the therapeutic index of topically applied ocular drugs. In: Archives of Ophthalmology. 1984 ; Vol. 102, No. 4. pp. 551-553.
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