In-vivo assessment of tissue metabolite levels using 1H MRS and the Electric REference to access in vivo concentrations (ERETIC) method

S. Heinzer-Schweizer, N. De Zanche, M. Pavan, G. Mens, U. Sturzenegger, A. Henning, P. Boesiger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Scopus citations


Quantitative values of metabolite concentrations in 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been obtained using the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method, whereby a synthetic reference signal is injected during the acquisition of spectra. The method has been improved to enable quantification of metabolite concentrations in vivo. Optical signal transmission was used to eliminate random fluctuations in ERETIC signal coupling to the receiver coil due to changes in position of cables and highly dielectric human tissue. Stability and reliability of the signal were tested in vitro, achieving stability with a mean error of 2.83%. Scaling of the signal in variable loading conditions was demonstrated and in-vivo measurements of brain were acquired on a 3T Philips system using a transmit/receive coil. The quantitative brain water and metabolite concentration values are in good agreement with those in the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-413
Number of pages8
JournalNMR in biomedicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2010
Externally publishedYes



  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Quantification
  • Reference signal injection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy

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