Incidence of isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and risk of thrombosis by IgG-specific anti-PF4/heparin ELISA

Sofyan M. Radaideh, Eugene P. Frenkel, Jonathan E. Dowell, Ravindra Sarode, Yu Min Shen

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibodies are screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyspecific ELISA detects anti-PF4/heparin IgG, IgA, and IgM. Recently, anti-PF4/heparin IgG ELISA has been shown to be more specific. However, the impact of using the IgG-ELISA on the incidence of isolated HIT (thrombocytopenia alone without clinically evident thrombosis) and the risk of developing subsequent thrombosis are still unknown. Methods: A total of 492 consecutive patients with clinically suspected HIT at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and affiliated hospitals were retrospectively reviewed from December 2008 to May 2010. RESULTS: 29 patients (6%) were diagnosed with HIT based on clinical findings and positive ELISA. 19 of the 29 patients (65%) had thrombosis at the time of diagnosis; whereas 10 of the 29 (35%) had only isolated HIT. The ten patients with isolated HIT had serial follow up for at least 3 months. 3 of 10 were treated with direct thrombin inhibitors and 5 of 10 were treated with Warfarin for at least 1 month upon discharge. None of them developed symptoms or signs of thrombosis during 3 months of follow up. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated HIT in this study was 35%, which is significantly lower than previously reported in the literature. It is possible that some patients previously thought to have HIT by the poly-specific ELISA assay had false positive results. The improved specificity of the IgG- ELISA appears to reduce the incidence of isolated HIT which may have lower risk of subsequent thrombosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-217
Number of pages3
JournalClinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
Volume18
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012

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Thrombocytopenia
Heparin
Thrombosis
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Incidence
Immunoglobulin G
anti-IgG
Antithrombins
Warfarin
Immunoglobulin A
Signs and Symptoms
Antibodies

Keywords

  • heparins
  • thrombocytopenia
  • thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

Cite this

@article{d9d9098dd9b048ab9b55069558dbeced,
title = "Incidence of isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and risk of thrombosis by IgG-specific anti-PF4/heparin ELISA",
abstract = "Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibodies are screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyspecific ELISA detects anti-PF4/heparin IgG, IgA, and IgM. Recently, anti-PF4/heparin IgG ELISA has been shown to be more specific. However, the impact of using the IgG-ELISA on the incidence of isolated HIT (thrombocytopenia alone without clinically evident thrombosis) and the risk of developing subsequent thrombosis are still unknown. Methods: A total of 492 consecutive patients with clinically suspected HIT at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and affiliated hospitals were retrospectively reviewed from December 2008 to May 2010. RESULTS: 29 patients (6{\%}) were diagnosed with HIT based on clinical findings and positive ELISA. 19 of the 29 patients (65{\%}) had thrombosis at the time of diagnosis; whereas 10 of the 29 (35{\%}) had only isolated HIT. The ten patients with isolated HIT had serial follow up for at least 3 months. 3 of 10 were treated with direct thrombin inhibitors and 5 of 10 were treated with Warfarin for at least 1 month upon discharge. None of them developed symptoms or signs of thrombosis during 3 months of follow up. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated HIT in this study was 35{\%}, which is significantly lower than previously reported in the literature. It is possible that some patients previously thought to have HIT by the poly-specific ELISA assay had false positive results. The improved specificity of the IgG- ELISA appears to reduce the incidence of isolated HIT which may have lower risk of subsequent thrombosis.",
keywords = "heparins, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis",
author = "Radaideh, {Sofyan M.} and Frenkel, {Eugene P.} and Dowell, {Jonathan E.} and Ravindra Sarode and Shen, {Yu Min}",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "215--217",
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T1 - Incidence of isolated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and risk of thrombosis by IgG-specific anti-PF4/heparin ELISA

AU - Radaideh, Sofyan M.

AU - Frenkel, Eugene P.

AU - Dowell, Jonathan E.

AU - Sarode, Ravindra

AU - Shen, Yu Min

PY - 2012/3

Y1 - 2012/3

N2 - Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibodies are screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyspecific ELISA detects anti-PF4/heparin IgG, IgA, and IgM. Recently, anti-PF4/heparin IgG ELISA has been shown to be more specific. However, the impact of using the IgG-ELISA on the incidence of isolated HIT (thrombocytopenia alone without clinically evident thrombosis) and the risk of developing subsequent thrombosis are still unknown. Methods: A total of 492 consecutive patients with clinically suspected HIT at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and affiliated hospitals were retrospectively reviewed from December 2008 to May 2010. RESULTS: 29 patients (6%) were diagnosed with HIT based on clinical findings and positive ELISA. 19 of the 29 patients (65%) had thrombosis at the time of diagnosis; whereas 10 of the 29 (35%) had only isolated HIT. The ten patients with isolated HIT had serial follow up for at least 3 months. 3 of 10 were treated with direct thrombin inhibitors and 5 of 10 were treated with Warfarin for at least 1 month upon discharge. None of them developed symptoms or signs of thrombosis during 3 months of follow up. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated HIT in this study was 35%, which is significantly lower than previously reported in the literature. It is possible that some patients previously thought to have HIT by the poly-specific ELISA assay had false positive results. The improved specificity of the IgG- ELISA appears to reduce the incidence of isolated HIT which may have lower risk of subsequent thrombosis.

AB - Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibodies are screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyspecific ELISA detects anti-PF4/heparin IgG, IgA, and IgM. Recently, anti-PF4/heparin IgG ELISA has been shown to be more specific. However, the impact of using the IgG-ELISA on the incidence of isolated HIT (thrombocytopenia alone without clinically evident thrombosis) and the risk of developing subsequent thrombosis are still unknown. Methods: A total of 492 consecutive patients with clinically suspected HIT at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and affiliated hospitals were retrospectively reviewed from December 2008 to May 2010. RESULTS: 29 patients (6%) were diagnosed with HIT based on clinical findings and positive ELISA. 19 of the 29 patients (65%) had thrombosis at the time of diagnosis; whereas 10 of the 29 (35%) had only isolated HIT. The ten patients with isolated HIT had serial follow up for at least 3 months. 3 of 10 were treated with direct thrombin inhibitors and 5 of 10 were treated with Warfarin for at least 1 month upon discharge. None of them developed symptoms or signs of thrombosis during 3 months of follow up. Conclusion: The incidence of isolated HIT in this study was 35%, which is significantly lower than previously reported in the literature. It is possible that some patients previously thought to have HIT by the poly-specific ELISA assay had false positive results. The improved specificity of the IgG- ELISA appears to reduce the incidence of isolated HIT which may have lower risk of subsequent thrombosis.

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