It has been suggested that dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) are responsible for occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Dihaloalkanes are metabolically activated by GSH S-transferase theta1 (GSTT1) to yield products such as episulfonium ions. However, whether the GSTT1-mediated step of these dihaloalkanes is related to occupational cholangiocarcinoma is not known. In the present study, we investigated the influence of GSTT1 activation on the mutagenicity of DCM and 1,2-DCP using GSTT1-expressing Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100-GST). Since the mutagenicity of DCM was significantly increased in TA100-GST compared with mock control (TA100-pCTC), GSTT1 is thought to be involved in the mutagenicity of DCM. Mutation spectrum analysis on the hisG gene revealed that C:G to A:T transversions were the predominant form observed in DCM-treated TA100-pCTC. However, C:G to T:A transitions were dramatically increased in TA100-GST. We also analysed the DCM-DNA adduct, N2-GSH-Me-dG, and formation of N2-GSH-Me-dG was increased in TA100-GST compared with TA100-pCTC. On the other hand, 1,2-DCP did not increase the numbers of revertants in TA100-GSTT1. In mutation spectrum analysis, C:G to T:A transitions was predominant in both TA100-pCTC and TA100-GSTT1. These findings suggest that GSTT1 has little involvement in DCP mutagenicity, and other mechanisms might be more important for bioactivation and consequent genotoxicity. Clarification of the mechanisms underlying the development of DCM- and/or 1,2-DCP-related human cholangiocarcinoma may help establish risk assessment and prevention strategies against occupational cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis