Innate responses to Toxoplasma gondii in mice and humans

Reed Pifer, Felix Yarovinsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates production of high levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by cells of the innate immune system. These two cytokines are central to resistance to T. gondii. Signaling through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein MyD88 is indispensible for activating early innate immune responses. Recent studies have established that TLR11 plays a dominant role in sensing T. gondii. At the same time, TLR11 is represented in humans only by a pseudogene, and the major question of how innate and adaptive immune responses occur in the absence of TLR11 remains unanswered. In this article, similarities and differences in sensors and effector molecules that determine host resistance to the parasite in humans and mice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-393
Number of pages6
JournalTrends in Parasitology
Volume27
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2011

Fingerprint

Toxoplasma
Innate Immunity
Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
Pseudogenes
Toll-Like Receptors
Toxoplasmosis
Adaptive Immunity
Interleukin-12
Interferons
Immune System
Parasites
Cytokines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Parasitology

Cite this

Innate responses to Toxoplasma gondii in mice and humans. / Pifer, Reed; Yarovinsky, Felix.

In: Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 27, No. 9, 09.2011, p. 388-393.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pifer, Reed ; Yarovinsky, Felix. / Innate responses to Toxoplasma gondii in mice and humans. In: Trends in Parasitology. 2011 ; Vol. 27, No. 9. pp. 388-393.
@article{cda91762a26b44f98f392d0a257f1c27,
title = "Innate responses to Toxoplasma gondii in mice and humans",
abstract = "Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates production of high levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by cells of the innate immune system. These two cytokines are central to resistance to T. gondii. Signaling through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein MyD88 is indispensible for activating early innate immune responses. Recent studies have established that TLR11 plays a dominant role in sensing T. gondii. At the same time, TLR11 is represented in humans only by a pseudogene, and the major question of how innate and adaptive immune responses occur in the absence of TLR11 remains unanswered. In this article, similarities and differences in sensors and effector molecules that determine host resistance to the parasite in humans and mice are discussed.",
author = "Reed Pifer and Felix Yarovinsky",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1016/j.pt.2011.03.009",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "388--393",
journal = "Trends in Parasitology",
issn = "1471-4922",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Innate responses to Toxoplasma gondii in mice and humans

AU - Pifer, Reed

AU - Yarovinsky, Felix

PY - 2011/9

Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates production of high levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by cells of the innate immune system. These two cytokines are central to resistance to T. gondii. Signaling through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein MyD88 is indispensible for activating early innate immune responses. Recent studies have established that TLR11 plays a dominant role in sensing T. gondii. At the same time, TLR11 is represented in humans only by a pseudogene, and the major question of how innate and adaptive immune responses occur in the absence of TLR11 remains unanswered. In this article, similarities and differences in sensors and effector molecules that determine host resistance to the parasite in humans and mice are discussed.

AB - Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates production of high levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) by cells of the innate immune system. These two cytokines are central to resistance to T. gondii. Signaling through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor protein MyD88 is indispensible for activating early innate immune responses. Recent studies have established that TLR11 plays a dominant role in sensing T. gondii. At the same time, TLR11 is represented in humans only by a pseudogene, and the major question of how innate and adaptive immune responses occur in the absence of TLR11 remains unanswered. In this article, similarities and differences in sensors and effector molecules that determine host resistance to the parasite in humans and mice are discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80051765668&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80051765668&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.pt.2011.03.009

DO - 10.1016/j.pt.2011.03.009

M3 - Article

C2 - 21550851

AN - SCOPUS:80051765668

VL - 27

SP - 388

EP - 393

JO - Trends in Parasitology

JF - Trends in Parasitology

SN - 1471-4922

IS - 9

ER -