This chapter talks about input to releasing factor cells. Hypothalamus, median eminence, and pituitary contain the various cellular elements necessary for transforming neural inputs into hormonal outputs. The outputs of the hypothalamus are the hypothalamic hypophysiotrophic hormones which are involved in the regulation of the release of trophic hormones from the anterior pituitary. The confusion and discrepancies that revolve around neurotransmitters as modulators of releasing factor cells may be due in part to the use of different experimental conditions and different animal models. Although neurotransmitters, for example, certain biogenic amines, are believed to act as modulators linking neural stimuli and the cells which produce hypophysiotrophic substances the precise role of such transmitters is equivocal. The demonstration of osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus that regulate the release of the antidiuretic hormone from the neurohypophysis led us to consider the hypothesis that strain receptors may be involved in the release of trophic hormones from the anterior pituitary.
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