Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2

Shu Feng Zhou, Li Ping Yang, Zhi Wei Zhou, Ya He Liu, Eli Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Human CYP1A2 is one of the major CYPs in human liver and metabolizes a variety of clinically important drugs (e.g., clozapine, tacrine, tizanidine, and theophylline), a number of procarcinogens (e.g. benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1), and several important endogenous compounds (e.g. steroids and arachidonic acids). Like many of other CYPs, CYP1A2 is subject to induction and inhibition by a number of compounds, which may provide an explanation for some drug interactions observed in clinical practice. A large interindividual variability in the expression and activity of CYP1A2 and elimination of drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP1A2 has been observed, which is largely caused by genetic (e.g., SNPs) and epigenetic (e.g., DNA methylation) and environmental factors (e.g., smoking and comedication). CYP1A2 is primarily regulated by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and CYP1A2 is induced through AhR-mediated transactivation following ligand binding and nuclear translocation. To date, more than 15 variant alleles and a series of subvariants of the CYP1A2 gene have been identified and some of they have been associated with altered drug clearance and response to drug therapy. For example, lack of response to clozapine therapy due to low plasma drug levels has been reported in smokers harboring the -163A/A genotype; there is an association between CYP1A2 *1F (-163C>A) allele and the risk for leflunomide-induced host toxicity. The *1F allele is associated with increased enzyme inducibility whereas *1C causes reduced inducibility. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical and toxicological significance of altered CYP1A2 expression and activity caused by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)481-494
Number of pages14
JournalAAPS Journal
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CYP1A2
  • Inducer
  • Inhibitor
  • Single nuclear polymorphism
  • Substrate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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