Using data from 266 age- and sex-matched pairs of Jamaican children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) controls (2–8 years), we investigated whether glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) modifies the association between blood manganese concentrations (BMC) and ASD. After adjusting conditional logistic regression models for socioeconomic status and the interaction between GSTT1 and GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1), using a recessive genetic model for GSTT1 and either a co-dominant or dominant model for GSTP1, the interaction between GSTT1 and BMC was significant (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively). Compared to controls, ASD cases with GSTT1-DD genotype had 4.33 and 4.34 times higher odds of BMC > 12 vs. ≤ 8.3 μg/L, respectively. Replication in other populations is warranted.
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
- Blood manganese concentrations (BMC)
- Conditional logistic regression (CLR)
- Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology