International consensus recommendations for management of new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) including febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES): Summary and clinical tools

the International NORSE Consensus Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To develop consensus-based recommendations for the management of adult and pediatric patients with new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE)/febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Methods: The Delphi methodology was followed. A facilitator group of nine experts was established who defined the scope, users, and suggestions for recommendations. Following a review of the current literature, recommendation statements concerning diagnosis, treatment, and research directions were generated that were then voted on using a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 9 (strongly agree) by a panel of 48 experts in the field. Consensus that a statement was appropriate was reached if the median score was greater than or equal to 7, and inappropriate if the median score was less than or equal to 3. Results: Overall, 85 recommendation statements achieved consensus. The recommendations are divided into five sections: (1) disease characteristics; (2) diagnostic testing and sampling; (3) acute treatment; (4) treatment in the post-acute phase; and (5) research, registries, and future directions in NORSE/FIRES. These are summarized in this article along with two practical clinical flowsheets: one for diagnosis and evaluation and one for acute treatment. A corresponding evidence-based analysis of all 85 recommendations alongside responses by the Delphi panel is presented in a companion article. Significance: The recommendations generated by this consensus can be used as a guide for the diagnosis; evaluation; and management of patients with NORSE/FIRES; and for planning of future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEpilepsia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • adult
  • anti-seizure medication
  • Delphi
  • epilepsy
  • immunotherapy
  • ketogenic diet
  • pediatric
  • refractory
  • status epilepticus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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