Serious morbidity and hyperemic states continue to complicate the treatment of certain intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Clinical and radiographic characteristics of 62 patients treated over 3 years were analyzed to determine if hyperemic complications (HCs) (defined as unusual perioperative edema or hemorrhage) and outcome could be predicted. Twenty-five (40%) of the patients were less than 30 years old, 28 (45%) were between 30 and 50, and 9 (15%) were more than 50. A history of hemorrhage was found in 48%, and 34% presented with progressive deficits. Thirteen (21%) developed evidence of HCs; 51 (82%) ultimately had a good outcome, 4 (6%) had a poor outcome, and 7 (11%) died. The incidence of HCs was higher in patients whose AVMs recruited perforating vessels (53%) than those without (7%) (P < 0.001). The presence of preoperative angiographic steal carried a 35% risk of HCs whereas its absence carried a 13% risk (P < 0.05). The sum of the diameters of the feeding vessels was also predictive (P < 0.05). Outcome was clearly age-related: good outcome was achieved in 92% of the patients less than 30 years old, 86% of those 30 to 50, and 44% of patients older than 50 (P < 0.05). Left hemispheric AVMs showed less morbidity than right (P < 0.05) as did those without perforating vessel recruitment (P < 0.07). HCs had a dramatic impact on outcome with 92% of patients without HCs having good outcome and 46% of those with HCs recovering well (P < 0.001).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology