Intrauterine fetal constraint induces chondrocyte apoptosis and premature ossification of the cranial base

James M. Smartt, Jagajan Karmacharya, Francis H. Gannon, Cristina Teixeira, Kyle Mansfield, Oksana Hunenko, Irving M. Shapiro, Richard E. Kirschner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is an important growth center of the craniofacial skeleton and a primary site of malformation in syndromic forms of craniosynostosis. Clinical and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that premature closure of cranial vault sutures in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is associated with characteristic alterations in cranial base morphology. However, a causal link between premature fusion of calvarial sutures and changes in the cranial base remains elusive. The purpose of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that intrauterine head constraint produces ultrastructural changes in the spheno-occipital synchondroses of fetal mice. Methods: Fetal constraint was induced through uterine cerclage of six pregnant C57B1/6 mice on the eighteenth day of gestation. Fetuses were harvested after growing to 24, 48, and 72 hours beyond the normal 20-day gestational period. Between six and nine fetuses were harvested at all time points in both treatment and control groups. The morphology and cell biology of the spheno-occipital synchondroses, in constrained fetuses and unconstrained controls, were examined using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Chondrocyte apoptosis was examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP end-labeling assays and electron microscopy. Results: In nonconstrained animals, the spheno-occipital synchondrosis demonstrated normal architecture and normal chondrocyte morphology at all time points. In contrast, intrauterine constraint resulted in a progressive disruption of the normal cellular architecture of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis over 72 hours, with premature ossification of the synchondrosis. Widespread chondrocyte apoptosis within the synchondrosial growth center was demonstrated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP end-labeling assays and electron microscopy. Conclusion: These experiments confirm the ability of intrauterine constraint to induce changes in the morphology and cell biology of the cranial base in synostotic fetuses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1363-1369
Number of pages7
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume116
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2005

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Skull Base
Chondrocytes
Osteogenesis
Fetus
Apoptosis
Craniosynostoses
DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase
Cell Biology
Electron Microscopy
Cranial Sutures
Hematoxylin
Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
Growth
Skeleton
Sutures
Head
Pregnancy
Control Groups
Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Smartt, J. M., Karmacharya, J., Gannon, F. H., Teixeira, C., Mansfield, K., Hunenko, O., ... Kirschner, R. E. (2005). Intrauterine fetal constraint induces chondrocyte apoptosis and premature ossification of the cranial base. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 116(5), 1363-1369. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000182224.98761.cf

Intrauterine fetal constraint induces chondrocyte apoptosis and premature ossification of the cranial base. / Smartt, James M.; Karmacharya, Jagajan; Gannon, Francis H.; Teixeira, Cristina; Mansfield, Kyle; Hunenko, Oksana; Shapiro, Irving M.; Kirschner, Richard E.

In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 116, No. 5, 10.2005, p. 1363-1369.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smartt, JM, Karmacharya, J, Gannon, FH, Teixeira, C, Mansfield, K, Hunenko, O, Shapiro, IM & Kirschner, RE 2005, 'Intrauterine fetal constraint induces chondrocyte apoptosis and premature ossification of the cranial base', Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 1363-1369. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000182224.98761.cf
Smartt, James M. ; Karmacharya, Jagajan ; Gannon, Francis H. ; Teixeira, Cristina ; Mansfield, Kyle ; Hunenko, Oksana ; Shapiro, Irving M. ; Kirschner, Richard E. / Intrauterine fetal constraint induces chondrocyte apoptosis and premature ossification of the cranial base. In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2005 ; Vol. 116, No. 5. pp. 1363-1369.
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abstract = "Background: The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is an important growth center of the craniofacial skeleton and a primary site of malformation in syndromic forms of craniosynostosis. Clinical and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that premature closure of cranial vault sutures in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is associated with characteristic alterations in cranial base morphology. However, a causal link between premature fusion of calvarial sutures and changes in the cranial base remains elusive. The purpose of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that intrauterine head constraint produces ultrastructural changes in the spheno-occipital synchondroses of fetal mice. Methods: Fetal constraint was induced through uterine cerclage of six pregnant C57B1/6 mice on the eighteenth day of gestation. Fetuses were harvested after growing to 24, 48, and 72 hours beyond the normal 20-day gestational period. Between six and nine fetuses were harvested at all time points in both treatment and control groups. The morphology and cell biology of the spheno-occipital synchondroses, in constrained fetuses and unconstrained controls, were examined using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Chondrocyte apoptosis was examined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP end-labeling assays and electron microscopy. Results: In nonconstrained animals, the spheno-occipital synchondrosis demonstrated normal architecture and normal chondrocyte morphology at all time points. In contrast, intrauterine constraint resulted in a progressive disruption of the normal cellular architecture of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis over 72 hours, with premature ossification of the synchondrosis. Widespread chondrocyte apoptosis within the synchondrosial growth center was demonstrated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP end-labeling assays and electron microscopy. Conclusion: These experiments confirm the ability of intrauterine constraint to induce changes in the morphology and cell biology of the cranial base in synostotic fetuses.",
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