Intrinsic antiviral immunity refers to a form of innate immunity that directly restricts viral replication and assembly, thereby rendering a cell nonpermissive to a specific class or species of viruses. Intrinsic immunity is conferred by restriction factors that are mostly preexistent in certain cell types, although these factors can be further induced by viral infection. Intrinsic virus-restriction factors recognize specific viral components, but unlike other pattern-recognition receptors that inhibit viral infection indirectly by inducing interferons and other antiviral molecules, intrinsic antiviral factors block viral replication immediately and directly. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the roles of intrinsic antiviral factors that restrict infection by human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus.
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