Individuals with psychosis have been reported to show either reduced or augmented brain responses under seemingly similar conditions. It is likely that inconsistent baseline-adjustment methods are partly responsible for this discrepancy. Using steady-state stimuli during a pro/antisaccade task, this study addressed the relationship between nonspecific and stimulus-related neural activity, and how these activities are modulated as a function of cognitive demands. In 98 psychosis probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis), neural activity was assessed during baseline and during a 5-s period in preparation for the pro/antisaccade task. To maximize the ability to identify meaningful differences between psychosis subtypes, analyses were conducted as a function of subgrouping probands by standard clinical diagnoses and neurobiological features. These psychosis "biotypes" were created using brain-based biomarkers, independent of symptomatology (Clementz et al., ). Psychosis probands as a whole showed poor antisaccade performance and diminished baseline oscillatory phase synchrony. Psychosis biotypes differed on both behavioral and brain measures, in ways predicted from Clementz et al. (). Two biotype groups showed similarly deficient behavior and baseline synchrony, despite diametrically opposed neural activity amplitudes. Another biotype subgroup was more similar to healthy individuals on behavioral and brain measures, despite the presence of psychosis. This study provides evidence that (a) consideration of baseline levels of activation and synchrony will be essential for a comprehensive understanding of neural response differences in psychosis, and (b) distinct psychosis subgroups exhibit reduced versus augmented intrinsic neural activity, despite cognitive performance and clinical similarities.
- Bipolar disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Physiology (medical)