Use of the ileocecal bowel segment in urological surgery has become more widespread. Thorough preoperative evaluation of the bowel is seldom performed. A case is presented in which the intraoperative finding of numerous cecal polyps led to abortion of a planned cecocystoplasty. The literature on fecal occult blood testing and screening methods for colorectal neoplasia was reviewed. Patients are classified into 2 categories, average risk and high risk, according to the relative risk for colorectal neoplasia. The data suggest that the fecal occult blood test, if properly performed, is an adequate screening tool for average risk patients. However, because of the high rate of false negative results this test is inadequate for evaluation of high risk patients. It is recommended that such patients should undergo preoperative screening colonoscopy regardless of the fecal blood test result.
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