Kidney stones

Saeed R. Khan, Margaret S Pearle, William G. Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Benjamin K. Canales, Steeve Doizi, Olivier Traxer, Hans Göran Tiselius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the renal calyces and pelvis that are found free or attached to the renal papillae. They contain crystalline and organic components and are formed when the urine becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral. Calcium oxalate is the main constituent of most stones, many of which form on a foundation of calcium phosphate called Randall's plaques, which are present on the renal papillary surface. Stone formation is highly prevalent, with rates of up to 14.8% and increasing, and a recurrence rate of up to 50% within the first 5 years of the initial stone episode. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for stone formation, which, in turn, can lead to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Management of symptomatic kidney stones has evolved from open surgical lithotomy to minimally invasive endourological treatments leading to a reduction in patient morbidity, improved stone-free rates and better quality of life. Prevention of recurrence requires behavioural and nutritional interventions, as well as pharmacological treatments that are specific for the type of stone. There is a great need for recurrence prevention that requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in stone formation to facilitate the development of more-effective drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16008
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Volume2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 25 2016

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Kidney Calculi
Recurrence
Minerals
Hypertension
Kidney
Calcium Oxalate
Kidney Pelvis
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Chronic Kidney Failure
Obesity
Quality of Life
Urine
Pharmacology
Morbidity
Therapeutics
Pharmaceutical Preparations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Khan, S. R., Pearle, M. S., Robertson, W. G., Gambaro, G., Canales, B. K., Doizi, S., ... Tiselius, H. G. (2016). Kidney stones. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2, [16008]. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.8

Kidney stones. / Khan, Saeed R.; Pearle, Margaret S; Robertson, William G.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Canales, Benjamin K.; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier; Tiselius, Hans Göran.

In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers, Vol. 2, 16008, 25.02.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khan, SR, Pearle, MS, Robertson, WG, Gambaro, G, Canales, BK, Doizi, S, Traxer, O & Tiselius, HG 2016, 'Kidney stones', Nature Reviews Disease Primers, vol. 2, 16008. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.8
Khan SR, Pearle MS, Robertson WG, Gambaro G, Canales BK, Doizi S et al. Kidney stones. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016 Feb 25;2. 16008. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2016.8
Khan, Saeed R. ; Pearle, Margaret S ; Robertson, William G. ; Gambaro, Giovanni ; Canales, Benjamin K. ; Doizi, Steeve ; Traxer, Olivier ; Tiselius, Hans Göran. / Kidney stones. In: Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016 ; Vol. 2.
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