Kidney Stones

Brad Hornberger, Megan Rasmussen Bollner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Overall prevalence of kidney stones is increasing as more stones are found incidentally on CT and risk factors for stone disease (eg, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus) become more prevalent. Etiology of nephrolithiasis varies with stone type and depends on genetic, dietary, medication, lifestyle, and metabolic factors. Diagnostic evaluation of stone formers includes thorough history and physical, imaging, blood work, urinalysis, 24-hour urine collection and analysis of stone fragments when possible. Medical management of stone disease includes increased hydration and dietary changes and/or pharmacologic therapy corresponding to an individual patient's metabolic derangements. Surgical treatment options for stone disease include shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysician Assistant Clinics
StateAccepted/In press - 2017


  • Bladder stones
  • Kidney stones
  • Medical management
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Renal stones
  • Surgical management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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  • Cite this

    Hornberger, B., & Bollner, M. R. (Accepted/In press). Kidney Stones. Physician Assistant Clinics.