Purpose: This study aimed to develop a linac-mounted kilovoltage (kV) projection streaming-based tracking method for vertebral targets during spine stereotactic radiation surgery and evaluate the clinical feasibility of the proposed spine tracking method. Methods and materials: Using real-time kV projection streaming within XVI (Elekta XVI), kV–projection-based tracking was applied to the target vertebral bodies. Two-dimensional in-plane patient translation was calculated via an image registration between digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and kV projections. DRR was generated from the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, which was obtained immediately before the tracking session. During a tracking session, each kV projection was streamed for an intensity gradient-based image with similar metric-based registration to the offset DRR. The ground truth displacement for each kV beam angle was calculated at the beam isocenter using the 6 degrees-of-freedom transformation that was obtained by a CBCT-CBCT rigid registration. The resulting translation by the DRR-projection registration was compared with the ground truth displacement. The proposed tracking method was evaluated retrospectively and online, using 7 and 5 spine patients, respectively. Results: The accuracy and precision of spine tracking for in-plane patient motion were 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. The magnitude of patient motion that was estimated using the CBCT-CBCT rigid registration was (0.5 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.3, 0.3 ± 0.3) mm and (0.3 ± 0.4, 0.2 ± 0.2, 0.5 ± 0.6) mm for all tracking sessions. The intrafraction motion was within 2 mm for all CBCT scans considered. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the proposed spine tracking method can track intrafraction motion with sub-millimeter accuracy and precision, and sub-second latency.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging