Laparoscopic renal surgery in children has been slow to evolve, but further development is warranted. Dysplasia, obstruction, or reflux leading to nonfunction are the most common indications for nephrectomy. Partial nephrectomy and reconstructive surgery can also be performed laparoscopically. Both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches can be used, with each having advantages and disadvantages. The future of pediatric laparoscopic renal surgery will be determined by technical and methodologic advances.
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