Enhanced understanding of the molecular features of glioma has led to an expansion of murine glioma models and successful preclinical studies. However, clinical trials continue to have a high cost, extended production time, and low proportion of success. Studies in large-animal models of various cancer types have emerged to bridge the translational gap between in vitro and in vivo animal studies and human clinical trials. The anatomy and physiology of large animals are of more direct relevance to human disease, allowing for more rigorous testing of treatments such as surgical resection and adjuvant therapy in glioma. The recent generation of multiple porcine glioma models supports their use in high-throughput preclinical studies. The demonstration of spontaneous glioblastoma formation in canines further provides a unique avenue for the study of de novo glioma. The aim of this review was to outline the current status of large animal models of glioma and their value as a transitional step between rodent models and human clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5343-5353
Number of pages11
JournalAnticancer Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Dog
  • Glioblastoma
  • Glioma
  • Large animal
  • Nonhuman primate
  • Pig
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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