Purpose: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for late sequelae of treatment in patients who survived for more than 10 years after the diagnosis of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods: Of 77 survivors (median follow-up duration, 16.7 years), 44 (group A) had received chemotherapy, 18 (group B) had received chemotherapy and cranial irradiation, and 15 (group C) had received chemotherapy, total-body irradiation, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Late complications, tobacco use, and health insurance status were assessed. Results: Growth abnormalities were found in 51% of survivors, neurocognitive abnormalities in 30%, transfusion-acquired hepatitis in 28%, endocrine abnormalities in 16%, cataracts in 12%, and cardiac abnormalities in 8%. Younger age at the time of diagnosis or initiation of radiation therapy, higher dose of radiation, and treatment in groups B and C were risk factors for the development of academic difficulties and greater decrease in height Z score. In addition, treatment in group C was a risk factor for a greater decrease in weight Z score and the development of growth-hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, infertility, and cataracts. The estimated cumulative risk of a second malignancy at 20 years after diagnosis was 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.3% to 11.8%). Twenty-two patients (29%) were smokers, and 11 (14%) had no medical insurance at the time of last follow-up. Conclusion: Late sequelae are common in long-term survivors of childhood AML. Our findings should be useful in defining areas for surveillance of and intervention for late sequelae and in assessing the risk of individual late effects on the basis of age and history of treatment. (C) 2000 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research