Late isolated central nervous system relapse in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with intensified systemic therapy and delayed reduced dose cranial radiation: A report from the Children's Oncology Group study AALL02P2

Caroline Hastings, Yichen Chen, Meenakshi Devidas, A. Kim Ritchey, Naomi J. Winick, William L. Carroll, Stephen P. Hunger, Brent L. Wood, Robert B. Marcus, Julio C. Barredo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Patients with late, ≥18 months postdiagnosis, isolated central nervous relapse (iCNS-R) of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have excellent outcomes with chemotherapy plus cranial radiotherapy, with 5-year overall survival (OS) approaching 80% in POG 9412. Subsequent relapse and radiation-related morbidity remain the causes of treatment failure and long-term sequelae. COG AALL02P2 aimed to maintain outcomes in patients with late iCNS-R using intensified chemotherapy and a decrease in cranial irradiation from 1800 to 1200 cGy. Procedures: COG AALL02P2 enrolled 118 eligible patients with B-cell ALL (B-ALL) and late iCNS-R who received intensified systemic therapy, triple intrathecal chemotherapy, and 1200 cGy cranial irradiation delivered at 12 months, with maintenance chemotherapy continuing until 104 weeks postdiagnosis. Results: The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and OS were 64.3% ± 4.5% and 79.6% ± 3.8%, with 46.1% (18/39) of second relapses including the CNS. Of the 112 patients who completed therapy, 78 received protocol-specified radiation. Study enrollment was closed after interim monitoring analysis showed inferior EFS compared to POG 9412. Patients with initial NCI standard-risk classification fared better than high-risk patients. Conclusions: COG AALL02P2 showed inferior EFS but similar OS compared to POG 9412. Limitations included a small sample size, more intensive prior therapies, and a significant number of patients (34/118, 29%) who did not receive protocol-directed radiation due to early relapse prior to 1 year or did not otherwise follow the treatment plan. New approaches are needed to improve outcome for these patients and determine the optimal timing and dose of cranial radiation in the treatment of iCNS-R.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere29256
JournalPediatric Blood and Cancer
Volume68
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CNS relapse
  • childhood
  • leukemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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