Leptin is a circulating protein secreted by adipocytes which has profound feeding, metabolic, and neuroendocrine effects. Leptin receptors have been localized to the hypothalamus, but the anatomic sites responsible for mediating the effects of circulating leptin have not been demonstrated. We report that systemic administration of leptin activates nuclear groups in the ventrobasal hypothalamus, including the ventromedial, dorsomedial, and ventral premammillary hypothalamic nuclei. Leptin also activated the parvicellular subdivisions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus that project to parasympathetic and sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Finally, leptin administration activated the superior lateral parabrachial subnucleus, a nuclear group containing cholecystokinin neurons that project to the ventrobasal hypothalamus. These findings indicate that circulating leptin activates specific nuclear groups in the hypothalamus and brainstem known to regulate complex physiological responses during times of substrate availability.
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