OBJECTIVE: To study the variable clinical picture and exercise tolerance of patients with phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) 1 deficiency and how it relates to residual PGK enzyme activity. METHODS: In this case series study, we evaluated 7 boys and men from 5 families with PGK1 deficiency. Five had pure muscle symptoms, while 2 also had mild intellectual disability with or without anemia. Muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacities were evaluated by an ischemic forearm exercise test and by cycle ergometry. RESULTS: Enzyme levels of PGK were 4% to 9% of normal in red cells and 5% to10% in muscle in pure myopathy patients and 2.6% in both muscle and red cells in the 2 patients with multisystem involvement. Patients with pure myopathy had greater increases in lactate with ischemic exercise (2-3 mmol/L) vs the 2 multisystem-affected patients (<1 mmol/L). Myopathy patients had higher oxidative capacity in cycle exercise vs multisystem affected patients (≈30 vs ≈15 mL/kg per minute). One multisystem-affected patient developed frank myoglobinuria after the short exercise test. CONCLUSIONS: This case series study of PGK1 deficiency suggests that the level of impaired glycolysis in PGK deficiency is a major determinant of phenotype. Lower glycolytic capacity in PGK1 deficiency seems to result in multisystem involvement and increased susceptibility to exertional rhabdomyolysis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology