Lipid, glycemic, and insulin responses to meals rich in saturated, cis-monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3 and n-6) fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes

Meena Shah, Beverley A Huet, Linda Brinkley, Scott M Grundy, Abhimanyu Garg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - The recommendations for dietary fats in patients with type 2 diabetes are based largely on the impact of fatty acids on fasting serum lipid and glucose concentrations. How fatty acids affect postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to study the effect of fatty acids on postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Test meals rich in palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and containing 1,000 kcal each were administered in a randomized crossover design to 11 type 2 diabetic subjects. Serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were measured for 360 min. All subjects received an isoenergetic diet of constant composition throughout the study. RESULTS - According to repeated-measures ANOVA, the insulin (P = 0.0002) but not glucose (P = 0.10) response was significantly different between meals. The insulin response was lower to meals rich in oleic acid or EPA and DHA than to meals rich in palmitic acid or linoleic acid (P < 0.01). The triglyceride response did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06) but tended to be lower with EPA and DHA than with the other fatty acids. Similar trends were seen for area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC for serum insulin and triglycerides, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS - In comparison with palmitic acid and linoleic acid, oleic acid or EPA and DHA may modestly lower insulin response in patients with type 2 diabetes without deteriorating the glucose response. EPA and DHA may also reduce the triglyceride response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2993-2998
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume30
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2007

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Meals
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Fatty Acids
Insulin
Triglycerides
Lipids
Glucose
Palmitic Acid
Linoleic Acid
Oleic Acid
Area Under Curve
Serum
Dietary Fats
Cross-Over Studies
Fasting
Analysis of Variance
Research Design
Diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

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title = "Lipid, glycemic, and insulin responses to meals rich in saturated, cis-monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3 and n-6) fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE - The recommendations for dietary fats in patients with type 2 diabetes are based largely on the impact of fatty acids on fasting serum lipid and glucose concentrations. How fatty acids affect postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to study the effect of fatty acids on postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Test meals rich in palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and containing 1,000 kcal each were administered in a randomized crossover design to 11 type 2 diabetic subjects. Serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were measured for 360 min. All subjects received an isoenergetic diet of constant composition throughout the study. RESULTS - According to repeated-measures ANOVA, the insulin (P = 0.0002) but not glucose (P = 0.10) response was significantly different between meals. The insulin response was lower to meals rich in oleic acid or EPA and DHA than to meals rich in palmitic acid or linoleic acid (P < 0.01). The triglyceride response did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06) but tended to be lower with EPA and DHA than with the other fatty acids. Similar trends were seen for area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC for serum insulin and triglycerides, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS - In comparison with palmitic acid and linoleic acid, oleic acid or EPA and DHA may modestly lower insulin response in patients with type 2 diabetes without deteriorating the glucose response. EPA and DHA may also reduce the triglyceride response.",
author = "Meena Shah and Huet, {Beverley A} and Linda Brinkley and Grundy, {Scott M} and Abhimanyu Garg",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
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pages = "2993--2998",
journal = "Diabetes Care",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Lipid, glycemic, and insulin responses to meals rich in saturated, cis-monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3 and n-6) fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes

AU - Shah, Meena

AU - Huet, Beverley A

AU - Brinkley, Linda

AU - Grundy, Scott M

AU - Garg, Abhimanyu

PY - 2007/12

Y1 - 2007/12

N2 - OBJECTIVE - The recommendations for dietary fats in patients with type 2 diabetes are based largely on the impact of fatty acids on fasting serum lipid and glucose concentrations. How fatty acids affect postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to study the effect of fatty acids on postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Test meals rich in palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and containing 1,000 kcal each were administered in a randomized crossover design to 11 type 2 diabetic subjects. Serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were measured for 360 min. All subjects received an isoenergetic diet of constant composition throughout the study. RESULTS - According to repeated-measures ANOVA, the insulin (P = 0.0002) but not glucose (P = 0.10) response was significantly different between meals. The insulin response was lower to meals rich in oleic acid or EPA and DHA than to meals rich in palmitic acid or linoleic acid (P < 0.01). The triglyceride response did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06) but tended to be lower with EPA and DHA than with the other fatty acids. Similar trends were seen for area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC for serum insulin and triglycerides, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS - In comparison with palmitic acid and linoleic acid, oleic acid or EPA and DHA may modestly lower insulin response in patients with type 2 diabetes without deteriorating the glucose response. EPA and DHA may also reduce the triglyceride response.

AB - OBJECTIVE - The recommendations for dietary fats in patients with type 2 diabetes are based largely on the impact of fatty acids on fasting serum lipid and glucose concentrations. How fatty acids affect postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations, however, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to study the effect of fatty acids on postprandial insulin, glucose, and triglyceride responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Test meals rich in palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and containing 1,000 kcal each were administered in a randomized crossover design to 11 type 2 diabetic subjects. Serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were measured for 360 min. All subjects received an isoenergetic diet of constant composition throughout the study. RESULTS - According to repeated-measures ANOVA, the insulin (P = 0.0002) but not glucose (P = 0.10) response was significantly different between meals. The insulin response was lower to meals rich in oleic acid or EPA and DHA than to meals rich in palmitic acid or linoleic acid (P < 0.01). The triglyceride response did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06) but tended to be lower with EPA and DHA than with the other fatty acids. Similar trends were seen for area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC for serum insulin and triglycerides, but the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS - In comparison with palmitic acid and linoleic acid, oleic acid or EPA and DHA may modestly lower insulin response in patients with type 2 diabetes without deteriorating the glucose response. EPA and DHA may also reduce the triglyceride response.

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DO - 10.2337/dc07-1026

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VL - 30

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JO - Diabetes Care

JF - Diabetes Care

SN - 1935-5548

IS - 12

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