Objectives: To analyze the perioperative and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing liver-directed therapy after pancreaticoduodenectomy in a large dual-center cohort of patients. Background: Although aggressive liver-directed therapy may be beneficial, liver-directed therapy may be associated with a high risk of complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods: Of 5025 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Mayo Clinic between 1970 and 2008, 126 (2.5%), patients were identified who were also treated with either simultaneous or staged liver-directed therapy. Data on demographics, primary tumor, and hepatic metastasis characteristics, as well as details of the liver-directed therapy were collected and analyzed. Results: Primary tumor histology included neuroendocrine carcinoma (34.9%), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (33.4%), distal cholangiocarcinoma (8.7%), ampullary carcinoma (7.1%), duodenal carcinoma (4.0%), or other (11.9%). Liver-directed therapies included hepatic resection alone (45.2%), hepatic resection plus ablation (11.1%), ablation alone (7.9%), transarterial chemoembolization (9.5%), and whole-liver irradiation (22.2%). The overall morbidity following liver-directed therapy was 34.1% and overall mortality was 2.4%. Patients undergoing staged liver-directed therapy (14.5%) versus simultaneous pancreaticoduodenectomy plus liver-directed therapy (7.0%) were more likely to develop a liver abscess (P < 0.05). Of those patients who developed complications, the majority (55.8%) were major (Clavien grade ≥3). Conclusions: Pancreaticoduodenectomy plus liver-directed therapy is associated with considerable morbidity. The incidence of hepatic abscess is increased in patients undergoing staged pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by liver-directed therapy.
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