Background: Hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) with concomitant extrahepatic disease (EHD) is a controversial topic. We sought to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients undergoing liver resection for CLM in presence of EHD and identify factors associated with prognosis. Methods: From 1996 to 2007, a total of 1629 patients who underwent resection of CLM were identified from an international multi-institutional database. One hundred seventy-one patients (10.4%) underwent resection of EHD. Clinicopathologic and outcome data were collected and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Median number of treated CLM was 2 (range, 1-18); most patients had solitary EHD (n = 114; 66.6%) a single anatomic site of EHD (n = 153; 89.4%). The 5-year survival for patients with EHD was 26% compared with 58% for those without EHD (P < 0.001). Recurrence was common (84%). Among patients with EHD, R1 margin status, multiple EHD sites, and location of EHD were associated with worse survival (all P < 0.05). Patients with multiple EHD sites or aortocaval lymph node metastasis had a 5-year survival of 14% and 7%, respectively. When survival was stratified by the total number of metastases treated, the presence of EHD still had a prognostic impact, but the relative impact of EHD diminished as the total number of metastases treated increased. Conclusion: Concurrent resection of hepatic and EHD in well-selected patients may provide the possibility of long-term survival. The risk of recurrence, however, remains high, and a worse outcome is associated with both number of metastases and location of EHD.
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