Long-Term Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Cardiovascular Mortality in Individuals at Low 10-Year Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

Shuaib M Abdullah, Laura F. Defina, David Leonard, Carolyn E. Barlow, Nina B. Radford, Benjamin L. Willis, Anand K Rohatgi, Darren K McGuire, James A de Lemos, Scott M Grundy, Jarett D Berry, Amit Khera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease mortality in an exclusively low estimated 10-year risk group are not well delineated. We sought to determine the long-term associations of various LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) thresholds and CVD and coronary heart disease mortality in a large, low 10-year risk cohort. METHODS: The study sample included participants of the CCLS (Cooper Center Longitudinal Study) without a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus and defined as low risk (<7.5%) for 10-year atherosclerotic CVD events at baseline based on Pooled Cohort Risk Assessment Equations. The associations of fasting LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality were tested with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In 36 375 participants (72% men, median age 42) followed for a median of 26.8 years, 1086 CVD and 598 coronary heart disease deaths occurred. Compared with LDL-C <100 mg/dL, LDL-C categories 100 to 129 mg/dL, 130 to 159 mg/dL, 160 to 189.9 mg/dL, and ≥190 mg/dL were associated with a significantly higher risk of CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.4), and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.3), and mean reductions in years free of CVD death of 1.8, 1.1, 4.3, and 3.9, respectively. After adjustment for atherosclerotic CVD risk factors, LDL-C categories 160 to 189 mg/dL and ≥190 mg/dL remained independently associated with CVD mortality, with hazard ratios of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-2.1), respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models using non-HDL-C <130 mg/dL as the reference, non-HDL-C 160 to 189 mg/dL, 190 to 219 mg/dL, and ≥220 mg/dL were significantly associated with CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.4-2.2), and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-2.0), respectively. Restricting the cohort to those with 10-year risk <5% did not diminish the associations of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a low 10-year risk cohort with long-term follow-up, LDL-C and non-HDL-C ≥160 mg/dL were independently associated with a 50% to 80% increased relative risk of CVD mortality. These findings may have implications for future cholesterol treatment paradigms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2315-2325
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation
Volume138
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 20 2018

Fingerprint

LDL Cholesterol
Cardiovascular Diseases
Mortality
Coronary Disease
Proportional Hazards Models
Longitudinal Studies
lipoprotein cholesterol
Fasting
Diabetes Mellitus
Cholesterol

Keywords

  • long-term follow-up
  • low-density lipoprotein
  • primary prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

@article{1b4facbcd24a4f29bd42d9820a9ae0b1,
title = "Long-Term Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Cardiovascular Mortality in Individuals at Low 10-Year Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease mortality in an exclusively low estimated 10-year risk group are not well delineated. We sought to determine the long-term associations of various LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) thresholds and CVD and coronary heart disease mortality in a large, low 10-year risk cohort. METHODS: The study sample included participants of the CCLS (Cooper Center Longitudinal Study) without a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus and defined as low risk (<7.5{\%}) for 10-year atherosclerotic CVD events at baseline based on Pooled Cohort Risk Assessment Equations. The associations of fasting LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality were tested with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In 36 375 participants (72{\%} men, median age 42) followed for a median of 26.8 years, 1086 CVD and 598 coronary heart disease deaths occurred. Compared with LDL-C <100 mg/dL, LDL-C categories 100 to 129 mg/dL, 130 to 159 mg/dL, 160 to 189.9 mg/dL, and ≥190 mg/dL were associated with a significantly higher risk of CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.4 (95{\%} CI, 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95{\%} CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.9 (95{\%} CI, 1.5-2.4), and 1.7 (95{\%} CI, 1.3-2.3), and mean reductions in years free of CVD death of 1.8, 1.1, 4.3, and 3.9, respectively. After adjustment for atherosclerotic CVD risk factors, LDL-C categories 160 to 189 mg/dL and ≥190 mg/dL remained independently associated with CVD mortality, with hazard ratios of 1.7 (95{\%} CI, 1.4-2.2) and 1.5 (95{\%} CI, 1.2-2.1), respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models using non-HDL-C <130 mg/dL as the reference, non-HDL-C 160 to 189 mg/dL, 190 to 219 mg/dL, and ≥220 mg/dL were significantly associated with CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.3 (95{\%} CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.8 (95{\%} CI, 1.4-2.2), and 1.5 (95{\%} CI, 1.2-2.0), respectively. Restricting the cohort to those with 10-year risk <5{\%} did not diminish the associations of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a low 10-year risk cohort with long-term follow-up, LDL-C and non-HDL-C ≥160 mg/dL were independently associated with a 50{\%} to 80{\%} increased relative risk of CVD mortality. These findings may have implications for future cholesterol treatment paradigms.",
keywords = "long-term follow-up, low-density lipoprotein, primary prevention",
author = "Abdullah, {Shuaib M} and Defina, {Laura F.} and David Leonard and Barlow, {Carolyn E.} and Radford, {Nina B.} and Willis, {Benjamin L.} and Rohatgi, {Anand K} and McGuire, {Darren K} and {de Lemos}, {James A} and Grundy, {Scott M} and Berry, {Jarett D} and Amit Khera",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034273",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "138",
pages = "2315--2325",
journal = "Circulation",
issn = "0009-7322",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "21",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-Term Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Cardiovascular Mortality in Individuals at Low 10-Year Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

AU - Abdullah, Shuaib M

AU - Defina, Laura F.

AU - Leonard, David

AU - Barlow, Carolyn E.

AU - Radford, Nina B.

AU - Willis, Benjamin L.

AU - Rohatgi, Anand K

AU - McGuire, Darren K

AU - de Lemos, James A

AU - Grundy, Scott M

AU - Berry, Jarett D

AU - Khera, Amit

PY - 2018/11/20

Y1 - 2018/11/20

N2 - BACKGROUND: The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease mortality in an exclusively low estimated 10-year risk group are not well delineated. We sought to determine the long-term associations of various LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) thresholds and CVD and coronary heart disease mortality in a large, low 10-year risk cohort. METHODS: The study sample included participants of the CCLS (Cooper Center Longitudinal Study) without a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus and defined as low risk (<7.5%) for 10-year atherosclerotic CVD events at baseline based on Pooled Cohort Risk Assessment Equations. The associations of fasting LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality were tested with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In 36 375 participants (72% men, median age 42) followed for a median of 26.8 years, 1086 CVD and 598 coronary heart disease deaths occurred. Compared with LDL-C <100 mg/dL, LDL-C categories 100 to 129 mg/dL, 130 to 159 mg/dL, 160 to 189.9 mg/dL, and ≥190 mg/dL were associated with a significantly higher risk of CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.4), and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.3), and mean reductions in years free of CVD death of 1.8, 1.1, 4.3, and 3.9, respectively. After adjustment for atherosclerotic CVD risk factors, LDL-C categories 160 to 189 mg/dL and ≥190 mg/dL remained independently associated with CVD mortality, with hazard ratios of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-2.1), respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models using non-HDL-C <130 mg/dL as the reference, non-HDL-C 160 to 189 mg/dL, 190 to 219 mg/dL, and ≥220 mg/dL were significantly associated with CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.4-2.2), and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-2.0), respectively. Restricting the cohort to those with 10-year risk <5% did not diminish the associations of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a low 10-year risk cohort with long-term follow-up, LDL-C and non-HDL-C ≥160 mg/dL were independently associated with a 50% to 80% increased relative risk of CVD mortality. These findings may have implications for future cholesterol treatment paradigms.

AB - BACKGROUND: The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease mortality in an exclusively low estimated 10-year risk group are not well delineated. We sought to determine the long-term associations of various LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) thresholds and CVD and coronary heart disease mortality in a large, low 10-year risk cohort. METHODS: The study sample included participants of the CCLS (Cooper Center Longitudinal Study) without a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus and defined as low risk (<7.5%) for 10-year atherosclerotic CVD events at baseline based on Pooled Cohort Risk Assessment Equations. The associations of fasting LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality were tested with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In 36 375 participants (72% men, median age 42) followed for a median of 26.8 years, 1086 CVD and 598 coronary heart disease deaths occurred. Compared with LDL-C <100 mg/dL, LDL-C categories 100 to 129 mg/dL, 130 to 159 mg/dL, 160 to 189.9 mg/dL, and ≥190 mg/dL were associated with a significantly higher risk of CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.4), and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.3), and mean reductions in years free of CVD death of 1.8, 1.1, 4.3, and 3.9, respectively. After adjustment for atherosclerotic CVD risk factors, LDL-C categories 160 to 189 mg/dL and ≥190 mg/dL remained independently associated with CVD mortality, with hazard ratios of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-2.1), respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models using non-HDL-C <130 mg/dL as the reference, non-HDL-C 160 to 189 mg/dL, 190 to 219 mg/dL, and ≥220 mg/dL were significantly associated with CVD death, with hazard ratios of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.6), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.4-2.2), and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-2.0), respectively. Restricting the cohort to those with 10-year risk <5% did not diminish the associations of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a low 10-year risk cohort with long-term follow-up, LDL-C and non-HDL-C ≥160 mg/dL were independently associated with a 50% to 80% increased relative risk of CVD mortality. These findings may have implications for future cholesterol treatment paradigms.

KW - long-term follow-up

KW - low-density lipoprotein

KW - primary prevention

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85058919356&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85058919356&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034273

DO - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.034273

M3 - Article

C2 - 30571575

AN - SCOPUS:85058919356

VL - 138

SP - 2315

EP - 2325

JO - Circulation

JF - Circulation

SN - 0009-7322

IS - 21

ER -