Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain

Francesca M. Filbey, Sina Aslan, Vince D. Calhoun, Jeffrey S. Spence, Eswar Damaraju, Arvind Caprihan, Judith Segall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

88 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16913-16918
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume111
Issue number47
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 25 2014

Fingerprint

Cannabis
Brain
Prefrontal Cortex
Anisotropy
Age of Onset
Surgical Instruments
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Causality
Longitudinal Studies
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Gray Matter

Keywords

  • Diffusion tensor imaging
  • Functional connectivity
  • MRI
  • Orbitofrontal cortex
  • Resting state fMRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Filbey, F. M., Aslan, S., Calhoun, V. D., Spence, J. S., Damaraju, E., Caprihan, A., & Segall, J. (2014). Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(47), 16913-16918. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415297111

Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain. / Filbey, Francesca M.; Aslan, Sina; Calhoun, Vince D.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Damaraju, Eswar; Caprihan, Arvind; Segall, Judith.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 111, No. 47, 25.11.2014, p. 16913-16918.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Filbey, FM, Aslan, S, Calhoun, VD, Spence, JS, Damaraju, E, Caprihan, A & Segall, J 2014, 'Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 47, pp. 16913-16918. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415297111
Filbey FM, Aslan S, Calhoun VD, Spence JS, Damaraju E, Caprihan A et al. Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014 Nov 25;111(47):16913-16918. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415297111
Filbey, Francesca M. ; Aslan, Sina ; Calhoun, Vince D. ; Spence, Jeffrey S. ; Damaraju, Eswar ; Caprihan, Arvind ; Segall, Judith. / Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014 ; Vol. 111, No. 47. pp. 16913-16918.
@article{5e933cd47150480bb225c6bfe574a8db,
title = "Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain",
abstract = "Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects.",
keywords = "Diffusion tensor imaging, Functional connectivity, MRI, Orbitofrontal cortex, Resting state fMRI",
author = "Filbey, {Francesca M.} and Sina Aslan and Calhoun, {Vince D.} and Spence, {Jeffrey S.} and Eswar Damaraju and Arvind Caprihan and Judith Segall",
year = "2014",
month = "11",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1415297111",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "111",
pages = "16913--16918",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
number = "47",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain

AU - Filbey, Francesca M.

AU - Aslan, Sina

AU - Calhoun, Vince D.

AU - Spence, Jeffrey S.

AU - Damaraju, Eswar

AU - Caprihan, Arvind

AU - Segall, Judith

PY - 2014/11/25

Y1 - 2014/11/25

N2 - Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects.

AB - Questions surrounding the effects of chronic marijuana use on brain structure continue to increase. To date, however, findings remain inconclusive. In this comprehensive study that aimed to characterize brain alterations associated with chronic marijuana use, we measured gray matter (GM) volume via structural MRI across the whole brain by using voxel-based morphology, synchrony among abnormal GM regions during resting state via functional connectivity MRI, and white matter integrity (i.e., structural connectivity) between the abnormal GM regions via diffusion tensor imaging in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use. Despite the observed age of onset effects, longitudinal studies are needed to determine causality of these effects.

KW - Diffusion tensor imaging

KW - Functional connectivity

KW - MRI

KW - Orbitofrontal cortex

KW - Resting state fMRI

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84912544119&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84912544119&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1415297111

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1415297111

M3 - Article

VL - 111

SP - 16913

EP - 16918

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 47

ER -