Premature atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic renal failure patients undergoing dialysis. In this study, we compared autoantibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OX-LDL), soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and the effect of both LDL and OX-LDL on monocyte endothelial cell chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis (HD, n = 16) and peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 17) compared with matched healthy control subjects (C, n = 17). In addition, we studied the effect of supplementation with RRR-alpha-tocopherol (AT) 800 IU/d for 12 weeks on the above measures. LDL and OX-LDL induced adhesion of U937 cells to cultured endothelium, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin); autoantibodies to OX-LDL and markers of lipid peroxidation were determined before and after AT supplementation. Native LDL from PD patients induced greater monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion than LDL from C subjects (43.8% ± 17.0% v 25.3% ± 17.7%, respectively, P = .0028). OX-LDL from chronic renal failure patients on both PD and HD stimulated greater adhesion than OX-LDL from the C subjects (68.0% ± 18.5% and 57.6% ± 15.1% v 40.9% ± 17.3%, respectively, P < .01); OX-LDL from PD patients induced greater adhesion than that from HD patients (P < .01). Plasma methylglyoxal levels were significantly increased in both HD and PD groups, with higher levels in the HD group. Chronic renal failure patients on HD and PD also had higher levels of plasma sVCAM-1 and sE-selection than C subjects (P < .01), indicating endothelial activation. Titers of autoantibodies to OX-LDL were not elevated in renal failure patients. Supplementation with AT 800 IU/d for 12 weeks, while resulting in significant enrichment with AT in LDL, did not have a significant effect on any of the parameters studied. This study makes the novel observation that the LDL of chronic renal failure patients on HD and PD appears to be potentially more atherogenic, since it induces greater monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism