Lower-Extremity Segment-Length Prediction Accuracy of the Sanders Multiplier, Paley Multiplier, and White-Menelaus Formula

John G Birch, Marina R. Makarov, James O. Sanders, David A. Podeszwa, Erin M. Honcharuk, Melissa Esparza, Elaine Y. Tran, Chan Hee Jo, Jennifer A. Rodgers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Several methods are available to estimate leg lengths at maturity to facilitate the determination of timing of epiphysiodesis. We compared the Paley multiplier, Sanders multiplier, and White-Menelaus methods in an epiphysiodesis-aged cohort. We assessed intra- and interrater reliability for Sanders skeletal stages and Greulich and Pyle atlas skeletal age. METHODS: Actual growth was recorded in healthy, unoperated femoral and tibial segments from an epiphysiodesis database. The predicted and actual lengths were compared with use of the Paley multiplier and White-Menelaus methods, Greulich and Pyle skeletal age, and the Sanders multiplier using Sanders stages. Intra- and interrater reliability were assessed in a separate group of 76 skeletal age films. RESULTS: The cohort included 148 femora and 195 tibiae in 197 patients. Femoral length at maturity was slightly underestimated by the Sanders multiplier and staging, was overestimated by the Paley multiplier and skeletal age, and was most accurately predicted with use of the White-Menelaus formula and skeletal age. All methods overestimated tibial length at maturity. The whole-leg prediction accuracy of the Sanders multiplier and White-Menelaus formula were comparable and were more accurate than that of the Paley multiplier. For Sanders skeletal staging, the interrater reliability varied from 0.86 to 0.88 and the intrarater reliability varied from 0.87 to 0.96. For Greulich and Pyle skeletal age, the interrater reliability varied from 0.87 to 0.89 and the intrarater reliability varied from 0.91 to 0.95. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the Sanders multiplier and skeletal stages was more accurate than the Paley multiplier and skeletal age in this cohort. Use of the White-Menelaus formula and skeletal age was slightly more accurate in predicting femoral length and slightly less accurate in predicting tibial length compared with the Sanders multiplier. Intra- and interrater reliability were similar between Sanders skeletal stages and Greulich and Pyle atlas skeletal age. The White-Menelaus formula and skeletal age was the recommended method for predicting lower-extremity segment lengths at maturity and epiphysiodesis effect. Although easier to recall without referencing an atlas and not sex-specific, Sanders skeletal staging does not correspond directly to years of growth remaining, and thus cannot be used with the White-Menelaus formula. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The Greulich and Pyle atlas to determine skeletal age and the White-Menelaus formula to determine growth remaining are reliable predictors of epiphysiodesis effect in the lower extremities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1713-1717
Number of pages5
JournalThe Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
Volume103
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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