Purpose: The authors have developed and evaluated a method to predict lung surface motion based on spirometry measurements, and chest and abdomen motion at selected locations. Methods: A patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region was obtained at the end expiratory phase by the threshold-based segmentation method. Lung flow volume changes were recorded with a spirometer for each patient. A total of 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2×2 cm matrix points were used to detect chest wall motion over a total area of 32×24 cm covering the chest and abdomen surfaces. QR factorization with column pivoting was employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal areas. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, the authors developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression. Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the lung surface; they were optimized during the training process using all other 4D-CT phases except for the test inspiration phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertex locations of a testing data set. Results: The position of each lung surface mesh vertex was estimated from the motion at selected positions within the chest wall surface and from spirometry measurements in ten lung cancer patients. The average estimation of the 98th error percentile for the end inspiration phase was less than 1 mm (AP = 0.9 mm, RL = 0.6 mm, and SI = 0.8 mm). The vertices located at the lower region of the lung had a larger estimation error as compared with those within the upper region of the lung. The average landmark motion errors, derived from the biomechanical modeling using real surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs), and the predicted SDVFs were 3.0 and 3.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Our newly developed predictive model provides a noninvasive approach to derive lung boundary conditions. The proposed system can be used with personalized biomechanical respiration modeling to derive lung tumor motion during radiation therapy from noninvasive measurements.
- canonical correlation analysis
- finite element modeling
- lung deformation
- surrogate signals
- tumor motion prediction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging