Lymphocyte Immunosuppression and Dysfunction Contributing to Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome (PICS)

Christian B. Bergmann, Nadine Beckmann, Christen E. Salyer, Peter A. Crisologo, Vanessa Nomellini, Charles C. Caldwell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

ABSTRACT: Persistent Inflammation, Immune Suppression, and Catabolism Syndrome (PICS) is a disease state affecting patients who have a prolonged recovery after the acute phase of a large inflammatory insult. Trauma and sepsis are two pathologies after which such an insult evolves. In this review, we will focus on the key clinical determinants of PICS: Immunosuppression and cellular dysfunction. Currently, relevant immunosuppressive functions have been attributed to both innate and adaptive immune cells. However, there are significant gaps in our knowledge, as for trauma and sepsis the immunosuppressive functions of these cells have mostly been described in acute phase of inflammation so far, and their clinical relevance for the development of prolonged immunosuppression is mostly unknown. It is suggested that the initial immune imbalance determines the development of PCIS. Additionally, it remains unclear what distinguishes the onset of immune dysfunction in trauma and sepsis and how this drives immunosuppression in these cells. In this review, we will discuss how regulatory T cells (Tregs), innate lymphoid cells, natural killer T cells (NKT cells), TCR-a CD4- CD8- double-negative T cells (DN T cells), and B cells can contribute to the development of post-traumatic and septic immunosuppression. Altogether, we seek to fill a gap in the understanding of the contribution of lymphocyte immunosuppression and dysfunction to the development of chronic immune disbalance. Further, we will provide an overview of promising diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, whose potential to overcome the detrimental immunosuppression after trauma and sepsis is currently being tested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)723-741
Number of pages19
JournalShock (Augusta, Ga.)
Volume55
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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