Lymphotoxin (LT) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily that was originally thought to be functionally redundant to TNF, but these proteins were later found to have independent roles in driving lymphoid organogenesis. More recently, LT-mediated signalling has been shown to actively contribute to effector immune responses. LT regulates dendritic cell and CD4+ T cell homeostasis in the steady state and determines the functions of these cells during pathogenic challenges. The LT receptor pathway is essential for controlling pathogens and even contributes to the regulation of the intestinal microbiota, with recent data suggesting that LT-induced changes in the microbiota promote metabolic disease. In this Review, we discuss these newly defined roles for LT, with a particular focus on how the LT receptor pathway regulates innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy