1-4% of patients who undergo gastric biopsy have gastric polyps. These lesions may be true epithelial polyps, heterotopias, lymphoid tissue, or stromal lesions. Hyperplastic polyps, which arise in patients with underlying gastritis, and fundic-gland polyps, which are associated with PPI therapy, are the most common gastric polyps; however, prevalence varies widely relative to the local prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and use of PPI therapy. Some polyps have characteristic topography, size, and endoscopic appearance. Approximately 20% of biopsy specimens identified endoscopically as polyps have no definite pathological diagnosis. Evaluation of the phenotype of the gastric mucosa that surrounds a lesion will provide significant information crucial to the evaluation, diagnosis and management of a patient. The presence of a gastric adenoma should prompt the search for a coexistent carcinoma. The endoscopic characteristics, histopathology, pathogenesis, and management recommendations of polyps and common polypoid lesions in the stomach are discussed in this Review.
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