Management of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in CKD: What Are the Data?

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Abstract

Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) are 10 times more likely to die of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than the general population, and dialysis-dependent patients are at even higher risk. Although traditional CV risk factors are highly prevalent in individuals with CKD, these patients were often excluded from studies targeting modification of these risks. Although treatment of hypertension is beneficial in CKD, the best target blood pressure has not been established. Trial data showed that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade may prevent CV events in patients with CKD. The risks of aspirin may equal the benefits in NDD-CKD samples, and there are no trials testing aspirin in dialysis-dependent patients. Lipid-lowering therapy improves CV outcomes in NDD-CKD, but not in dialysis-dependent patients. Strict glycemic control prevents CV events in nonalbuminuric individuals, but showed no benefit in those with baseline albuminuria with albumin excretion > 300. mg/g, and there are no data in dialysis-dependent patients. Data for lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, physical activity, and smoking cessation, are mostly observational and extrapolated from non-CKD samples. This comprehensive review summarizes the best existing evidence and current clinical guidelines for modification of traditional risk factors for the prevention of CV events in patients with CKD and identifies knowledge gaps.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Dialysis
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Aspirin
Albuminuria
Angiotensins
Smoking Cessation
Aldosterone
Renin
Life Style
Weight Loss
Albumins
Cardiovascular Diseases
Guidelines
Exercise
Blood Pressure
Hypertension
Lipids
Therapeutics
Population

Keywords

  • Albuminuria
  • Aspirin
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Dialysis
  • Hemodialysis (HD)
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Hypertension
  • Lifestyle interventions
  • Modifiable risk factor
  • RAAS blockade
  • Review
  • Smoking
  • Statin
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

Cite this

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title = "Management of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in CKD: What Are the Data?",
abstract = "Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) are 10 times more likely to die of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than the general population, and dialysis-dependent patients are at even higher risk. Although traditional CV risk factors are highly prevalent in individuals with CKD, these patients were often excluded from studies targeting modification of these risks. Although treatment of hypertension is beneficial in CKD, the best target blood pressure has not been established. Trial data showed that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade may prevent CV events in patients with CKD. The risks of aspirin may equal the benefits in NDD-CKD samples, and there are no trials testing aspirin in dialysis-dependent patients. Lipid-lowering therapy improves CV outcomes in NDD-CKD, but not in dialysis-dependent patients. Strict glycemic control prevents CV events in nonalbuminuric individuals, but showed no benefit in those with baseline albuminuria with albumin excretion > 300. mg/g, and there are no data in dialysis-dependent patients. Data for lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, physical activity, and smoking cessation, are mostly observational and extrapolated from non-CKD samples. This comprehensive review summarizes the best existing evidence and current clinical guidelines for modification of traditional risk factors for the prevention of CV events in patients with CKD and identifies knowledge gaps.",
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N2 - Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) are 10 times more likely to die of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than the general population, and dialysis-dependent patients are at even higher risk. Although traditional CV risk factors are highly prevalent in individuals with CKD, these patients were often excluded from studies targeting modification of these risks. Although treatment of hypertension is beneficial in CKD, the best target blood pressure has not been established. Trial data showed that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade may prevent CV events in patients with CKD. The risks of aspirin may equal the benefits in NDD-CKD samples, and there are no trials testing aspirin in dialysis-dependent patients. Lipid-lowering therapy improves CV outcomes in NDD-CKD, but not in dialysis-dependent patients. Strict glycemic control prevents CV events in nonalbuminuric individuals, but showed no benefit in those with baseline albuminuria with albumin excretion > 300. mg/g, and there are no data in dialysis-dependent patients. Data for lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, physical activity, and smoking cessation, are mostly observational and extrapolated from non-CKD samples. This comprehensive review summarizes the best existing evidence and current clinical guidelines for modification of traditional risk factors for the prevention of CV events in patients with CKD and identifies knowledge gaps.

AB - Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) are 10 times more likely to die of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than the general population, and dialysis-dependent patients are at even higher risk. Although traditional CV risk factors are highly prevalent in individuals with CKD, these patients were often excluded from studies targeting modification of these risks. Although treatment of hypertension is beneficial in CKD, the best target blood pressure has not been established. Trial data showed that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade may prevent CV events in patients with CKD. The risks of aspirin may equal the benefits in NDD-CKD samples, and there are no trials testing aspirin in dialysis-dependent patients. Lipid-lowering therapy improves CV outcomes in NDD-CKD, but not in dialysis-dependent patients. Strict glycemic control prevents CV events in nonalbuminuric individuals, but showed no benefit in those with baseline albuminuria with albumin excretion > 300. mg/g, and there are no data in dialysis-dependent patients. Data for lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, physical activity, and smoking cessation, are mostly observational and extrapolated from non-CKD samples. This comprehensive review summarizes the best existing evidence and current clinical guidelines for modification of traditional risk factors for the prevention of CV events in patients with CKD and identifies knowledge gaps.

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