Patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis have various symptoms which affect their quality of life significantly including depression, cognitive decline, sleep changes, bladder dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and spasticity. Despite recent promising results on the effects of ocrelizumab on neurological disability in patients with PPMS, currently none of the immunomodulatory therapies are approved for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Therefore, clinicians currently mostly focus on management of well-recognized comorbidities of this disease phenotype in order to improve patients’ quality of life. There are very few studies evaluating strategies of symptomatic management on progressive forms of multiple sclerosis and most of the data is derived from studies on relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of these therapies can significantly affect patient care. In this article, we review common comorbidities associated with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis and outline important strategies for their symptomatic management.
- Gait disorder
- Neuropsychiatric manifestations
- Primary progressive multiple sclerosis
- Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
- Sexual dysfunction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology