Diverse DNA and RNA viruses utilize cytoskeletal networks to efficiently enter, replicate, and exit the host cell, while evading host immune responses. It is well established that the microtubule (MT) network is commonly hijacked by viruses to traffic to sites of replication after entry and to promote egress from the cell. However, mounting evidence suggests that the MT network is also a key regulator of host immune responses to infection. At the same time, viruses have acquired mechanisms to manipulate and/or usurp MT networks to evade these immune responses. Central to most interactions of viruses with the MT network are virally encoded microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that bind to MTs directly or indirectly. These MAPs associate with MTs and other viral or cellular MAPs to regulate various aspects of the MT network, including MT dynamics, MT-dependent transport via motor proteins such as kinesins and dyneins, and MT-dependent regulation of innate immune responses. In this review, we examine how viral MAP interactions with the MT network facilitate viral replication and immune evasion.
- immune evasion
- microtubule-associated protein
- microtubule-dependent transport
- virus–host interactions
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases