Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and 80%–90% of HCC develops in patients that have underlying cirrhosis. Better methods of surveillance are needed to increase early detection of HCC and the proportion of patients that can be offered curative therapies. Recent work in novel mass spec-based methods for glycomic and glycopeptide analysis for discovery and confirmation of markers for early detection of HCC versus cirrhosis is reviewed in this chapter. Results from recent work in these fields by several groups and the progress made in developing markers of early HCC which can outperform the current serum-based markers are described and discussed. Also, recent developments in isoform analysis of glycans and glycopeptides and in various mass spec fragmentation methods will be described and discussed.