A previous interim report of MM-011, the first study that combined lenalidomide with anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by lenalidomide maintenance for relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), showed promising safety and activity. We report the long-term outcomes of all 76 treated patients with follow-up ≥5 years. This single-center phase I/II study administered lenalidomide (10 mg on days 1-21 of every 28-day cycle), intravenous liposomal doxorubicin (40 mg/m2 on day 1), dexamethasone (40 mg on days 1-4), and intravenous vincristine (2 mg on day 1). After 4-6 planned induction cycles, lenalidomide maintenance therapy was given at the last tolerated dose until progression, with or without 50 mg prednisone every other day. The median number of previous therapies was 3 (range, 1-7); 49 (64.5%) patients had refractory disease. Forty-three (56.6%) patients received maintenance therapy. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred during induction and maintenance therapy in 48.7% and 25.6% of patients, respectively. Four (5.3%) treatment-related deaths occurred during induction. Responses were seen in 53.0% (at least partial response) and 71.2% (at least minor response) of patients. Overall, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 10.5 and 19.0 months, respectively; in patients with refractory disease these values were 7.5 and 11.3 months, respectively. Lenalidomide with anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by maintenance lenalidomide provided durable control in patients with RRMM (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00091624).
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