Measuring Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Diversity Engagement Survey

Sharina D. Person, C. Greer Jordan, Jeroan J. Allison, Lisa M. Fink Ogawa, Laura Castillo-Page, Sarah Conrad, Marc A. Nivet, Deborah L. Plummer

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Abstract

Purpose To produce a physician and scientific workforce that advances high-quality research and culturally competent care, academic medical centers (AMCs) must assess their capacity for diversity and inclusion and leverage opportunities for improvement. The Diversity Engagement Survey (DES) is presented as a diagnostic and benchmarking tool. Method The 22-item DES consists of eight factors that connect engagement theory to inclusion and diversity constructs. It was piloted at 1 AMC and then administered at 13 additional U.S. AMCs in 2011-2012. Face and content validity were assessed through a review panel. Cronbach alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to establish construct validity. Cluster analysis was conducted to establish ability of the DES to distinguish between institutions' degrees of engagement and inclusion. Criterion validity was established using observed differences in scores for demographic groups as suggested by the literature. Results The sample included 13,694 respondents across 14 AMCs. Cronbach alphas for the engagement and inclusion factors (range: 0.68-0.85), CFA fit indices, and item correlations with latent constructs indicated an acceptable model fit and that items measured the intended concepts. Cluster analysis of DES scores distinguished institutions with higher, middle, and lower degrees of engagement and inclusion by their respondents. Consistent with the literature, black, Hispanic/Latino, female, and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) respondents reported lower degrees of engagement than their counterparts. Conclusions The DES is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment, evaluation, and external benchmarking of institutional engagement and inclusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1675-1683
Number of pages9
JournalAcademic Medicine
Volume90
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

Cite this

Person, S. D., Jordan, C. G., Allison, J. J., Fink Ogawa, L. M., Castillo-Page, L., Conrad, S., Nivet, M. A., & Plummer, D. L. (2015). Measuring Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Diversity Engagement Survey. Academic Medicine, 90(12), 1675-1683. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000921