Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is known as a principal receptor for adenovirus commonly used as a gene delivery vector. Down-regulation of CAR is often detected in several cancer types. Epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 (depsipeptide) have been shown to increase CAR expression as well as the uptake of adenovirus in bladder cancer in vivo and in vitro, indicating that altered transcriptional regulation of CAR is the key mechanism responsible for the decreased CAR levels in this cancer. In this study, we screened agents that could induce CAR expression in bladder cancer cells. Fifty-eight drugs with various chemical properties were tested. Ipriflavone and plant isoflavones were found to exhibit the ability to induce CAR gene expression in combination with FK228. Genistein, the natural isoflavone found in soybean, when combined with FK228, exerts a synergistic effect on CAR gene and protein expression in bladder cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results showed an increased histone acetylation in the CAR promoter gene, which is due to the suppression of histone deacetylase activity by both agents. Also, our data indicated that combination treatment is a potent chemotherapeutic regimen for bladder cancer cells and the subsequent administration of recombinant adenovirus could further eliminate the remaining cells. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale for combining chemotherapeutic and gene therapeutic agents to enhance the therapeutic efficacy in bladder cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research