Metabolic syndrome is associated with and predicted by resting heart rate: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

Xiongjing Jiang, Xiaoxue Liu, Shouling Wu, Gus Q. Zhang, Meng Peng, Yuntao Wu, Xiaoming Zheng, Chunyu Ruan, Weiguo Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Although higher resting heart rate (RHR) has emerged as a predictor for lifespan, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigates whether a positive relationship exists between RHR and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether RHR predicts future MetS.

Methods: A cohort of 89 860 participants were surveyed during 2006-2007 in Kailuan/Tangshan, China. MetS was diagnosed when a participant presented at least three of the following: abdominal adiposity, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high triglycerides, hypertension or impaired fasting glucose. RHR was derived from ECG recordings and subjects were stratified based on RHR. Some participants without MetS at baseline were followed-up for 4 years.

Results: At baseline, 23 150 participants (25.76%) had MetS. There was a positive association between RHR and MetS. The OR of having MetS was 1.49 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.69) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 compared with those at 55-64 beats per minute (bpm) (reference), after adjusting for variables including age, sex, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activities, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, inflammatory biomarkers and renal function. More importantly, when 43 725 individuals from the original study without MetS at baseline were followed-up, higher RHR was found to predict greater risk of MetS incidence. The OR of developing MetS 4 years later was 1.41 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.65) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 bpm compared with reference, after all adjustments.

Conclusions: Our cross-sectional and longitudinal findings provide evidence that RHR is an independent risk factor for existing MetS and a powerful predictor for future incidence of MetS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-49
Number of pages6
JournalHeart
Volume101
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

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Longitudinal Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Heart Rate
Basal Metabolism
Hypertension
Social Adjustment
Sex Education
Incidence
Adiposity
Hyperlipidemias
Alcohol Drinking
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Fasting
China
Electrocardiography
Triglycerides
Body Mass Index
Biomarkers
Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Metabolic syndrome is associated with and predicted by resting heart rate : A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. / Jiang, Xiongjing; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wu, Shouling; Zhang, Gus Q.; Peng, Meng; Wu, Yuntao; Zheng, Xiaoming; Ruan, Chunyu; Zhang, Weiguo.

In: Heart, Vol. 101, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 44-49.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jiang, Xiongjing ; Liu, Xiaoxue ; Wu, Shouling ; Zhang, Gus Q. ; Peng, Meng ; Wu, Yuntao ; Zheng, Xiaoming ; Ruan, Chunyu ; Zhang, Weiguo. / Metabolic syndrome is associated with and predicted by resting heart rate : A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. In: Heart. 2015 ; Vol. 101, No. 1. pp. 44-49.
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abstract = "Objective: Although higher resting heart rate (RHR) has emerged as a predictor for lifespan, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigates whether a positive relationship exists between RHR and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether RHR predicts future MetS.Methods: A cohort of 89 860 participants were surveyed during 2006-2007 in Kailuan/Tangshan, China. MetS was diagnosed when a participant presented at least three of the following: abdominal adiposity, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high triglycerides, hypertension or impaired fasting glucose. RHR was derived from ECG recordings and subjects were stratified based on RHR. Some participants without MetS at baseline were followed-up for 4 years.Results: At baseline, 23 150 participants (25.76{\%}) had MetS. There was a positive association between RHR and MetS. The OR of having MetS was 1.49 (95{\%} CI 1.32 to 1.69) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 compared with those at 55-64 beats per minute (bpm) (reference), after adjusting for variables including age, sex, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activities, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, inflammatory biomarkers and renal function. More importantly, when 43 725 individuals from the original study without MetS at baseline were followed-up, higher RHR was found to predict greater risk of MetS incidence. The OR of developing MetS 4 years later was 1.41 (95{\%} CI 1.21 to 1.65) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 bpm compared with reference, after all adjustments.Conclusions: Our cross-sectional and longitudinal findings provide evidence that RHR is an independent risk factor for existing MetS and a powerful predictor for future incidence of MetS.",
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T1 - Metabolic syndrome is associated with and predicted by resting heart rate

T2 - A cross-sectional and longitudinal study

AU - Jiang, Xiongjing

AU - Liu, Xiaoxue

AU - Wu, Shouling

AU - Zhang, Gus Q.

AU - Peng, Meng

AU - Wu, Yuntao

AU - Zheng, Xiaoming

AU - Ruan, Chunyu

AU - Zhang, Weiguo

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N2 - Objective: Although higher resting heart rate (RHR) has emerged as a predictor for lifespan, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigates whether a positive relationship exists between RHR and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether RHR predicts future MetS.Methods: A cohort of 89 860 participants were surveyed during 2006-2007 in Kailuan/Tangshan, China. MetS was diagnosed when a participant presented at least three of the following: abdominal adiposity, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high triglycerides, hypertension or impaired fasting glucose. RHR was derived from ECG recordings and subjects were stratified based on RHR. Some participants without MetS at baseline were followed-up for 4 years.Results: At baseline, 23 150 participants (25.76%) had MetS. There was a positive association between RHR and MetS. The OR of having MetS was 1.49 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.69) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 compared with those at 55-64 beats per minute (bpm) (reference), after adjusting for variables including age, sex, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activities, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, inflammatory biomarkers and renal function. More importantly, when 43 725 individuals from the original study without MetS at baseline were followed-up, higher RHR was found to predict greater risk of MetS incidence. The OR of developing MetS 4 years later was 1.41 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.65) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 bpm compared with reference, after all adjustments.Conclusions: Our cross-sectional and longitudinal findings provide evidence that RHR is an independent risk factor for existing MetS and a powerful predictor for future incidence of MetS.

AB - Objective: Although higher resting heart rate (RHR) has emerged as a predictor for lifespan, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigates whether a positive relationship exists between RHR and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether RHR predicts future MetS.Methods: A cohort of 89 860 participants were surveyed during 2006-2007 in Kailuan/Tangshan, China. MetS was diagnosed when a participant presented at least three of the following: abdominal adiposity, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high triglycerides, hypertension or impaired fasting glucose. RHR was derived from ECG recordings and subjects were stratified based on RHR. Some participants without MetS at baseline were followed-up for 4 years.Results: At baseline, 23 150 participants (25.76%) had MetS. There was a positive association between RHR and MetS. The OR of having MetS was 1.49 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.69) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 compared with those at 55-64 beats per minute (bpm) (reference), after adjusting for variables including age, sex, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activities, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, inflammatory biomarkers and renal function. More importantly, when 43 725 individuals from the original study without MetS at baseline were followed-up, higher RHR was found to predict greater risk of MetS incidence. The OR of developing MetS 4 years later was 1.41 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.65) in subjects with RHR at 95-104 bpm compared with reference, after all adjustments.Conclusions: Our cross-sectional and longitudinal findings provide evidence that RHR is an independent risk factor for existing MetS and a powerful predictor for future incidence of MetS.

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